Electoral Politics Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science Civics Chapter 4

Electoral Politics Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science Civics Chapter 4

Electoral Politics Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Free and fair elections are ensured by the _______ .
Answer:
Election Commission

Question 2.
The leader, Mr. Devi Lai from Haryana is the Chief of Haryana Sangharsh Samiti, led a movement named _______ .
Answer:
NyayaYudh

Question 3.
What does ‘EPIC’ stand for?
Answer:
Election Photo Identity Card.

Question 4.
How many voters took part in campaign-related activities during the 2004 elections?
Answer:
More than one-third voters took parts in campaign-related activities during the 2004 elections.

Question 5.
In India, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections are held regularly after every _______ .
Answer:
Five years

Question 6.
Sometimes, election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This type of election is called _______ .
Answer:
By-election

Question 7.
In India, we follow area based system of representation. The country is divided into different areas for purposes of elections. These areas are called _______ .
Answer:
Electoral constituency

Question 8.
Each state is divided into a specific number of Assembly constituencies. The elected representative from each area is called _______ .
Answer:
MLA or Member of Legislative Assembly

Question 9.
The list of those people who are eligible to vote is officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as _______ .
Answer:
Voters List

Question 10.
To be a candidate to contest the elections, the minimum age is _______ .
Answer:
25 years

Question 11.
According to our election law, no party or candidate can _______ .
Answer:
Bribe or threaten voters and appeal to them in the name of caste/religion.

Question 12.
As per code of conduct for election campaign, _______ .
Answer:
No party or candidate can use any place of worship for election propaganda.

Question 13.
What do you mean by “Universal Adult franchises”?
Answer:
Every citizen of India who is 18 years of age or above has a right to vote without discrimination of caste, creed, sex, colour, etc.

Question 14.
The members of Election Commission are appointed by the _______ .
Answer:
President of India

Question 15.
What do you mean by voters?
Answer:
People who have the right to vote or participate in the election of representatives are known as ‘voters’.

Question 16.
Name the political party that ruled over Haryana between 1982 to 1987.
Answer:
The Congress Party.

Question 17.
What is the significance of Election Photo Identity Card?
Answer:
This card is given to every person on the voter’s list. The voters are required to carry, this card when they go out to vote, so that no one can vote for someone else.

Question 18.
Who formed a new party ‘Lok Dal’?
Answer:
Chaudhary Devi Lai

Question 19.
How many seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha?
Answer:
One-third seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha.

Question 20.
What do you mean by ‘Polling Booth’?
Answer:
A polling booth is a place where voters go inside to caste their vote. Inside the booth, and election officials identify them and put a mark on their finger and allow them to cast their vote. .

Question 21.
What are elections?
Answer:
It is a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals.

Question 22.
What is a constituency?
Answer:
The entire country is divided into fixed electoral areas for purposes of elections. This is called constituency.

Question 23.
What is the full form of EVM?
Answer:
Electronic Voting Machine.

Question 24.
What is the importance of Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
It promotes the national unity &nd integrity. It gives a chance to people to gain political education.

Question 25.
What do you understand by the ‘Polling Day’?
Answer:
On this day, the voters cast their votes and elect their representatives.

Question 26.
What are the reserved constituencies?
Answer:
The constituencies that are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, are called reserved constituencies.

Question 27.
What is general election?
Answer:
The elections of the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha take place after five years. Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time, either on the same day or within a few days. This is called a general election.

Question 28.
Who is the head of the Election Commission?
Answer:
The Chief Election Commissioner is the head of the Election Commission.

Question 29.
What do you mean by ‘code of conduct’?
Answer:
It is a set of norms and guidelines to be followed by all political parties and contesting candidates during the election time.

Question 30.
What do you understanding by election manifesto?
Answer:
An election manifesto is a statement by a political party explaining its policies, saying what they will do if they win the election.

Question 31.
What are the main functions of the Election Commission of India?
Answer:
Section Commission takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of election. It implements code of conduct. It orders the government to follows the guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its win elections, or to transfer some government officials. If Election Commission feels unfairness in polling, it orders a re-poll.

Electoral Politics Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What details are required from the candidates who wish to contest elections?
Answer:
The candidates who wish to contest elections have to make a legal declaration, giving full details of:

  • Serious criminal cases pending against the candidate.
  • Details of the assets and liabilities of the candidate and his or her family.
  • Education qualifications of the candidate.

Question 2.
What are the two merits of electoral competition?
Answer:
Two merits of electoral competition are:

  • Political leaders all over the world, like all other professionals, are motivated by a desire to advance their political careers.
  • They want to come in power and retain positions for themselves. So they do their best to win the hearts of people. :

Question 3.
What are the choices generally a voter can make in an election?
Answer:
In an election, the voters make the following choices:

  • They can choose who will make laws for them.
  • They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
  • They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law-making process.

Question 4.
What the minimum conditions of a democratic election?
Answer:
The minimum conditions of a democratic elections are:

  • Everyone should be able to choose. This means that everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
  • There should be something to choose from. Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.
  • The choice should be offered at regular intervals. Elections must be held regularly after every few years.
  • The candidate preferred by the people should get elected.
  • Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner where people can choose them at their will. (Any three)

Question 5.
“Election campaigns are needed to regulate”. Why?
Answer:
It is sometimes necessary to regulate campaigns to ensure that every political party and candidate gets a fair and equal chance to compete.
According to our election law, no party or candidate can:

  • Bribe or threaten voters.
  • Appeal to them in the name of caste or religion.
  • Use government resources for election campaign.
  • Spend more than? 25 lakh in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or? 10 lakh in a constituency in an assembly election.

Question 6.
What is the ‘Model code of Conduct’ for election campaign?
Answer:
According to the medal code of conduct, no party or candidate can:

  • Use any place of worship for election propaganda. ‘
  • Use government vehicles, aircrafts and officials for election.
  • Once elections are announced, the Ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities.

Question 7.
Why should elections be held regularly?
Answer:
Elections should be held regularly because:

  • Elections should be held regularly because it provides incentives to the political parties and leaders.
  • They know that if they raise-issues that people want to raised, it would make them popular and increase their chances of victory in the next elections.
  • But, if they fail to satisfy the voters with their work, they will not be able to win again.

Question 8.
What are the demerits of an election competition?
Answer:
An electoral competition has many demerits such as.

  • It creates a sense of disunity and ‘factionalism’ in every locality.
  • Different political parties and leaders often level allegations against one another.
  • Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elections.

Question 9.
Why is there a provision of reservation of seats in the legislatures?
Answer:
The constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against the more influential and resourceful contestants. Hence, the seats are reserved for them in the legislatures.

Question 10.
How can you say that elections are expensive in our country?
Answer:
A large amount of money is spent in conducting elections in India. For instance, the government spent about? 3,500 crores in conducting Lok Sabha elections in 2014. That works out to about? 40 per person on the voters’ list. The amount spent by the parties and candidates was more than what the government spent. It is often said that elections are a burden on people. Our poor country cannot afford to hold elections once every five years.

Question 11.
What are some of the activities undertaken by political parties to carry out elections? Mention any three activities.
Answer:
Firstly, in election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues. For instance, the Congress party led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan of “Garibi Hatao” (remove poverty) in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. “Save Democracy” was the slogan given by Janata Party in the Lok Sabha election of 1977.

Secondly, political leaders contact their voters, address election meetings, promise to remove the grievances of the people. .
Thirdly, support of media – TV channels and newspaper columns – is also taken by the political parties to further their cause to gather more votes.

Question 12.
What type of election system is followed in India?
Answer:
In India, two types of election system are followed. First, when elections are held regularly after every five years is called a general electior. Second, when election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is called a by-election. Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha (Assembly) elections are held regularly after every five years. After five years, the term of all the elected representatives comes to an end. The Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha stands ‘dissolved’.

Question 13.
Write a short note on election campaigns.
Answer:
In our country, election campaigns take place for a two-week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling. During this period, the candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilise their supporters.

This is also the period when newspapers and television news are full of election related stories and debates. But, election campaign is not limited to these two weeks only. Political parties start preparing for elections months before they actually take place.

Question 14.
How does the polling take place?
Answer:
The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or ‘poll’ their vote. That day is usually called the election day. Every person whose name is on the voters’ list can go to a nearby ‘polling booth’, situated usually in a local school or a government office. Once the voters go inside the booth, the election officials identify them, put a mark on their finger and allow then to cast their vote. An agent of each candidate is allowed to sit inside the polling booth and ensure that the voting takes place in a fair way.

Question 15.
What are Electronic Voting Machines?
Answer:
Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. Independent candidates too have their own symbols, allotted by election officials. All the voter has to do is to press the button against the name of the candidate she wants to give her vote.

Question 16.
What unfair practices are generally used in elections by our contesting candidates?
Answer:
Unfair practices are quite common in elections. A lot of unfair practices are used during this time. Some of these are given below:

  • Inclusion of false names and exclusion of genuine names in the voters’ list;
  • Misuse of government facilities and government officials by the ruling party;
  • Excessive use of money by rich candidates and big parties;
  • Intimidation of voters and rigging on the polling day.

Question 17.
In which way does the Election Commission enjoy the same kind of independence as the judiciary?
Answer:
The Election Commission enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys.

  • The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India.
  • But, once appointed, he is not answerable to the President or the government.
  • Even if the ruling party or the government does not like what the Commission does, it is virtually impossible for it to remove the Chief Election Commissioner.

Electoral Politics Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the challenges to free and fair elections in India?
Answer:
The elections in India are basically free and fair. But, a few candidates may win purely based on money power and unfair means. These challenges exist not just in India but also in many established democracies. These deeper issues are a matter of concern for those who believe in democracy. The challenges to free and fair elections in India are as follows.

  • Candidates and parties with a lot of money may not be sure of their victory but they do enjoy a big and unfair advantage over smaller parties and independents.
  • In some parts of the country, candidates with criminal connection have been able to push others out of the electoral race and to secure a ‘ticket’ from major parties.
  • Some families tend to dominate political parties; tickets are distributed to relatives from these families.
  • Very often elections offer little choice to ordinary citizens, for both the major parties are quite similar to each other both in policies and practice.
  • Smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties.

Question 2.
How can you say that the outcome of elections is a final test of free and fair elections? Explain
Answer:
One final test of the free and fair of election has in the outcome itself. If elections are not free or fair, the outcome always favours the powerful. In such a situation, the ruling parties do not lose elections. Usually, the losing party does not accept the outcome of a rigged election.
The outcome of India’s elections speaks for itself:

  • The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at the national and state level. In fact, in every two out of the three elections held in the last fifteen years, the ruling party lost.
  • In the US, an incumbent or ‘sitting’ elected representative rarely loses an election. In India, about half of the sitting MPs or MLAs lose elections.
  • Candidates who are known to have spent a lot of money on ‘buying votes’ and
    those with known criminal connections often lose elections.
  • Barring very few disputed elections, the electoral outcomes are usually accepted as ‘people’s verdict’ by the defeated party.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Voter’s List? What is its significance?
Answer:
(i) In a democratic election, the list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the election and given to everyone. This list is officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as the Voters’ List.
(ii) The significance of Voter’s List is as follows:

  • This is an important step for it is linked to the first condition of a democratic election. Everyone should get an equal opportunity to choose representatives.
  • In our country, all the citizens aged 18 years and above can vote in an election. Every citizen has the right to vote, regardless of his or her caste, religion or gender.
  • It is the responsibility of the government to get the names of all the eligible voters put on the Voter’s List. As new persons attain voting age, names are added to the voters’ list. Names of those who move out of a place or those who are dead are deleted.
  • A complete revision of the list takes place every five years. This is done to ensure that it remains up to date. In the last few years a new system of Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC) has been introduced. The government has tried to give this card to every person on the voters’ list. But the card is not yet compulsory for voting. For voting, the voters can show many other proofs of identity like the ration card or the driving licence.

Question 4.
Explain the role of the Election Commission in conducting the free and fair elections.
Answer:
The role of the Election Commission in conducting the free and fair elections is as follows.

  • Election Commission takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results.
  • It implements the Code of Conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
  • It allots election symbols to parties and independent candidates.
  • During the election period, the Election Commission can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials.
  • When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the Election Commission and not the government.

Question 5.
What are the changing trends of people’s participation in elections in India?
Answer:
The changing trends of people’s participation in elections in India are as follows:

  • People’s participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout figures. Turnout indicates the per cent of eligible voters who cast their vote. In India, the turnout figures over last few decades have either remained stable or gone up.
  • In India, the poor, illiterate and underprivileged people vote in larger proportion as compared to the rich and privileged sections. This is in contrast to western democracies.
  • Common people in India attach a lot of importance to elections. They feel that through elections, they can bring pressure on political parties to adopt policies and programmes favourable to them.
  • The interest of voters in election-related activities has been increasing over the years. During the 2004 elections, more than one-third voters took part in a campaign-related activity.
  • More than half of the people identified themselves as being close to one or the other political party. One out of every seven voters is a member of a political party.

Electoral Politics Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions

Question 1.
What are the minimum conditions needed for a democratic election?
Solution:
There are five minimum conditions needed for a democratic election. They are :

  • Everyone should have the right to vote and every vote should have equal value.
  • Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and they should offer some real choice to the voters.
  • Elections must be held regularly .
  • Candidates preferred by the people should be elected.
  • Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.

Question 2.
Can elections be considered as competition ?
Solution:
Elections can be considered as a competition. It is a political competition. The competition is among political parties. At the constituency level, it is a competition among several candidates. If there is no competition, elections will become pointless.

An electoral competition also has many demerits . It creates a sense of disunity and ‘factionalism’ in every locality. Different political parties and leaders often level allegations against one another. Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elections.

Some good people who may wish to serve the country do not enter this arena because of this unhealthy competition.

Question 3.
What is our system of elections?
Solution:
Elections for the Lok sabha are held every 5 years. After five years the term of all the elected representatives comes to an end. The Lok Sabha stands ‘dissolved’.

Elections for the Lok Sabha are held in all constituencies on the same day or within a few days. This is called a general election. Sometimes election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is called a by election.

Question 4.
What are electoral constituencies?
Solution:
India is divided into different areas for purposes of elections. These areas are called electoral constituencies. We follow an area based system of representation. The voters who live in a particular constituencies elect one person to represent their constituencies.

Question 5.
How many constituencies do we have in India?
Solution:
India is divided into 543 constituencies for Lok Sabha elections. The representative elected from each constituency is called a Member of Parliament.

Similarly, each state is divided into a number of Assembly constituencies, depending on its population and it size.The elected representative of the Assembly constituencies are called the Member of Legislative Assembly or an MLA.
Each Parliamentary constituency has several Assembly constituencies .

Question 6.
What are Reserved Constituencies ?
Solution:
Reserved Constituencies are constituencies that are set aside for certain weaker sections of the society.
Weaker sections of the society may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies. They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others. Those who are influential and resourceful may prevent them from winning elections.

As our Constitution entitles every citizen to elect its representative, Reserved Constituencies are a necessity.

Question 7.
Who can vote and who cannot vote in India ?
Solution:
In India , all the citizens above the age of 18 can vote in an election. They have the right to vote, regardless of their caste, religion or gender.

The government gets the names of all the eligible voters and prepares the voters’ list. As new persons attain voting age names are added to the voters’ list. Names of those who move out of a place or those who are dead are deleted. A complete revision of the list takes place every five years.
Criminals and persons with unsound mind are denied the right to vote.

Question 8.
What should a citizen do if he or she wants to contest the elections?
Solution:
Every person who wishes to contest an election has to fill a ‘nomination form’ and pay a ‘security deposit’. They are requested to present a declaration. The legal declaration has to have the following details:

  • Details of any serious criminal cases pending against them. (If applicable).
  • Details of the assets and liabilities they have and that of their family members.
  • Educational qualifications.
    This information will be made public. This provides an opportunity to the voters to voice their objections, if any, and make the right decision during elections.

Question 9.
What are the two methods of voting?
Solution:
The two methods of voting are

  • The Ballot Paper: A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with their party name and symbols are listed. The voters indicate whom they want to vote for by putting a stamp on the ballot paper.
  • Electronic Voting: Electronic voting machines (EVM) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. The voter has to press the button corresponding to the name of the person he wants to vote. Then the vote gets registered automatically.
    Independent candidates too have their own symbols, allotted by election officials. Voting is conducted in total secrecy.

Question 10.
Why do we need elections?
Solution:
Elections are essential for any representative democracy. In an election the citizens have many choices. They are :

  • They can choose the people who will make laws.
  • They can choose the government that will rule them.
  • They can decide on the party whose policies they prefer.

Question 11.
What is the percentage of reservation for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok shaba?
Solution:
In the Lok Sabha, 79 seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and 41 for the Scheduled Tribes. This number is proportionate to their population. This reservation does not lessen the legitimate share of any other social group.

Question 12.
What is called a ticket in politics?
Solution:
Party’s nomination of a candidate is often called party ‘ticket’.

Question 13.
Mention a few successful slogans that were used during election campaigns.
Solution:
The most successful slogans used during election campaigns were:

  • Garibi Hatao or Remove poverty: This slogan was used by the Congress party led by Indira Gandhi in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. The party promised to remove poverty from the country.
  • Save Democracy: This slogan used by Janata Party in the Lok Sabha election held in 1977. The party promised to undo the excesses committed during Emergency and restore civil liberties.
    Land to the Tiller: This slogan was used by the Left Front in the West Bengal Assembly elections held in 1977.
  • Protect the Self Respect of the Telugus: This slogan used by N. T. Rama Rao, the leader of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections in 1983.

Question 14
Write a brief note on the Election Commission.
Solution:
The Election Commission is independent and very powerful . It enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India. He heads the Election Commission. After his election the C E C is not answerable to the President or the government. It is impossible for the government to remove the CEC, even if it is dissatisfied with him. The powers of the Election Commission of India are as follows:

  • EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results.
  • It implements the Code of Conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it
  • During the election period, the EC can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials
  • When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the EC and not the government.

Question 15.
What is meant by rigging?
Solution:
Fraud and malpractices indulged by a party or candidate to increase its votes, in an election is called rigging.

  • Using the votes of others
  • Recording multiple votes by the same person.
  • Bribing polling officers to favour a candidate are considered as rigging during elections.

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