English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 11 Modals-Expressing Attitudes
CBSE Class 10 English Workbook Solutions Unit 11 Modals-Expressing Attitudes
A.1. Look at the pictures given below :
See the Workbook on Page 197
Now complete the following dialogues using only one word for each blank on the basis of the pictures given above.
(a) Manav : Suma is playing the violin very well.
Priya : Yes; ________ you play any musical instrument?
Manav : I ________ But I have learnt vocal music.
(b) Peter : It’s suddenly become dark.
Nandiya : Yes ; Thick clouds have gathered in the sky. It ________ rain this evening.
(c) Abdullah : Ma’m, I’m a little late.
______ I enter the class?
Teacher : You ________. I’m afraid late coming has become a habit with you.
(d) Father : Take this. You ________ not forget to wear your helmet while riding your motorbike.
Son : Thanks, Dad. I forgot to pick it up.
(a) can, can’t
(c) May, may
The words that you have used to fill in the blanks denote certain attitudes and functions. Match column (A) with column (B) for the dialogues that you have completed.
Attitudes and Functions
|• Necessity||A (Must)|
|• Possibility||B (may)|
|• Ability||C (can, can’t)|
|• Permission||D (may)|
The words that you have used are called MODALS. They belong to a large category of auxiliary verbs, ie helping verbs that cannot be used on their own, but to be used in conjunction with other main verbs.
You must not forget to wear your helmet while riding your motorbike.
It may rain this evening.
Given below are some dialogues. Circle the modals and underline the main verbs in the italicised portions of the dialogues :
(a) A: Raju has fractured his arm.
B: But still he can write.
(b) A: I have still some shopping to do. May I leave my bag in your store ?
B: Yes, but please collect it before 8.00 pm.
(c) A: The coffee is rather bitter. Would you please pass some sugar ?
B: No, you must not take any sugar.
Have you forgotten your doctor’s advice ?
(d) A: I’ll not be able to finish my assignment in time.
B: Shall I do the drawings for you ?
(e) A: Jamila hasn’t come yet. It’s already very late.
B: She may come tomorrow.
(f) A: Someone is knocking on the door.
B: I’ll open it- it’ll be the maid.
(g) A: My feet get swollen in the evening.
B: Then you must consult a doctor.
Match the italicized portions of the dialogues with the attitudes and functions denoted by the modals used in them.
Here are the modals used in English.
See the Workbook on Page 200
Look at the following sentences :
(a) He needn’t come to office tomorrow.
(b) He needed permission to take a day off.
What is the difference in the use of ‘need’ between the above sentences ?
- In sentence (a) ‘need’ is used as a modal verb because there is a hare infinitive after it.
- In sentence (b) ‘need’ is used as a main verb because there is a noun after it.
- Can, could, may, might, shall, should, will and would are called ‘pure’ modals because they
(a) are followed by a main verb in its bare infinitive form (e.g. I must go.)
(b) don’t change in the third person (e.g. He will help and not He wills help.)
- Need and dare are used both as modal verbs and main verbs.
e.g. (1) They needed a lot of money to start a business (main verb).
(2) They need not borrow from the bank to start their business, (modal)
(As a modal, verb ‘need’ is commonly used with ‘not’)
(3) He dare not challenge the authority of his boss, (modal verb)
(As a modal verb dare is also commonly used with ‘not’)
(4) He does not dare to challenge the authority of his boss, (main verb)
Complete the following conversation choosing the most appropriate options from those given in the box. There can be more than one option for some of the blanks.
Gautam : I heard that Rahim (1) ________ open a garment shop, though he is a little uncertain.
Sheela : He (2) ________ not plunge into another business proposition ; he (3) ________ forget the colossal failure of his last business venture.
Gautam : You (4) ________ not have any worry on that count. He (5) ________ not be investing any money. His uncle is providing the capital and he said that Rahim (6) ________ be a working partner.
Sheela : In that case, I suppose, he (7) ________ go ahead. I remember how Rahim’s father (8) ________ sit for hours worrying about his son’s future.
Gautam : True. Now that Rahim has learnt his lesson, he (9) ________ be able to live upto the expectations of his father.
Sheela : Whatever you say, Rahim (10) ________ have his own way. he is that way a little obstinate. We (11) ________ only hope that everything turns out well.
- — (a) may
- — (a) need
- — (b) shouldn’t
- — (c) need
- — (b) will
- — (b) would
- — (b) might
- — (b) would
- — (a) should
- — (b) will
- — (c) can
B. Modals Expressing Possibility
Look at the picture. What do you think is happening ? Discuss in small groups. Use the modals given in the box.
could be , might be, must be may be
See the Workbook on Page 203
(a) It could be a man balancing himself sitting in the chair at a great height.
(b) It might be a man flying while sitting in his chair.
(c) It must be a magician showing a trick.
(d) It may be a person in his dream.
Indira and Mary are discussing their holiday plans. Read the dialogue and fill in the blanks by using suitable modals.
Indira : I’m so thrilled the exams are over.
Let’s go to the North-East this time.
Mary : Yes. I’d love that. Where exactly do you want to go?
Indira : I’d like to go to Cherapunji.
Mary : That’s hardly the place to go to. You see, it ______ raining there, especially at this time of the year. Let’s go to Shillong instead.
Indira : Why Shillong?
IIary : Indira, I’ve lived in that place. You’ll love it and the weather ______ really perfect now.
Indira : Okay, it’s Shillong then. But tell me, do I need to carry woollens?
Mary : Not really. It’s quite pleasant, but the nights ______ chilly, so bring a sweater.
Indira : And what about getting there?
Mary : Well ……… you could fly to Juwahah, and then you can catch a bus to Shillong.
Indira : How far is Shillong?
Mary : It ______ about 80 kilometres. It ______ a three hour drive by taxi.
could be, might be, may be, might be, must be, may be
‘Can’ and ‘Could’ also denote ability. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the example using ‘Can’ or ‘Could’.
Example: Parents who are able to support their children should not apply for scholarship.
Parents who can support their children should not apply for scholarship.
(a) After proper investigation the police were able to nail the culprit.
(b) After the examinations, I shall be able to go home for a week.
(c) In spite of the sincere efforts of the coach, the team is not able to win a single trophy.
Did you notice that ‘can’ is used to denote ability in the present and future and ‘could’ is used to denote ability in the past? However, remember that ‘could’ refers to past time only when the context makes the time clear.
(a) After proper investigations the police could nail the culprit.
(b) After the examination, I can go home for a week.
(c) In spite of the sincere efforts of the coach, the team can not win a single trophy.
C. Modals – Past, Present & Future
Read the following report of a school cricket match and underline all the modals and the verbs accompanying them. Underline the modals red and the verbs green.
Our school cricket team is practicing really hard for the zonal matches. I have no doubt that we will beat the local teams very easily, but when it comes to the outside teams, I am not as confident. Our boys must work very hard. Perhaps they could do some yoga exercises to improve their concentration. They need not worry about their fitness at this stage, but they should follow a strict routine.
Last year they had to struggle to reach the finals. The draw might have been a little unfavourable to them but they shouldn’t have neglected their fielding. This landed them in trouble in the quarter finals. This year our team should try and do better in the field. We lost the finals last year mainly because of floored catches ! A casual approach to this aspect must have been the cause of our failure at the crucial stage. So our team ought to improve its fielding and get its batting to click.
|Modals||will||must||could||need not||should||had to||might||shouldn’t||should||must||ought to|
You will have noticed in C1 that modals are used with a main verb to refer to the past, present or future. In pairs, look at the modals you have underlined and complete the table below. You may have noticed sometimes that the same modal is used to refer to the present as well as the future.
Mr Mehta and family decide to drive down to Goa for a holiday. On their way their car develops some problem. Given below is a conversation between the Mehta family members. Read the conversation and complete the conversation using suitable modals from the ones given in the box.
Note: Sometimes there could be more than one correct answer. You may also have to use some of the modals in the box more than once.
must have, will, can’t have, may have, must, may, could, needn’t, can
Mrs Mehta : What is the matter? Why have you stopped?
Mr Mehta : The car is giving some trouble. I have a feeling something is wrong with the engine. Let me check.
Mrs Mehta : Do you think we _____________ run out of petrol?
Mr Mehta : No, we _____________ run out of petrol. I got the tank filled before starting.
Mrs Mehta : If there is a technical fault, do you think you _____________ be able to fix it?
Mr Mehta : Let me first check what is wrong.
Dinu : Dad, look there’s smoke coming out. The engine _____________ become too hot.
Mr Mehta : Dinu, be careful. Don’t take the cap off the radiator. You ___________ not do that. You _____________ get boiling water all over you.
Mrs Mehta : Yes, Dinu, we _____________ have to wait till the engine cools down.
Dinu : And how long do you think it _____________ take for that?
Mr Mehta : I’m not sure. We _____________ have to wait for about fifteen minutes.
Dinu : Dad, I saw a garage about half a mile back. I suppose we _____________ ask them to fix the problem.
Mr Mehta : You _____________ worry. The car _____________ be all right. I got it serviced before starting. I am sure it’s just got too hot. Let’s wait and allow the engine to cool a bit.
Dinu : Mom, I am feeling hungry. _____________ I have something to eat?
Mrs Mehta : There are some sandwiches in the car. You _____________ have them.
may have, can’t have, will, must have, must, could, will, may, may, could, needn’t, will, May, can
D. Modals – Referring to the Past
Respond to the following situations by writing one sentence using might have, must have, should have, could have or ought to have. The first one has been done as an example.
1. Amber was certain that he would be here today, but he hasn’t come yet (miss, flight) Response : He must have missed his flight; nothing else would have held him up.
2.I was asked to be here for a meeting at 10.00 today. It’s already 10.30 and only a few of us are present.(meeting, cancel)
Response : The meeting __________, but you’d better wait for another half an hour.
3. They say they definitely sent the appointment letter by post, but it never arrived, (send fax message)
Response : They __________ instead.
4. The Municipality did not bother about keeping the locality clean. When the epidemic broke out, it claimed many lives.
(take precautions, prevent epidemic)
Response: The Municipality __________
5. The Principal is not in her office. She probably had some urgent work at home, (go, home)
Response : She __________.
6. Asha wasn’t really a big hit as the heroine of the play. The director needn’t have limited his choice to Class XII students alone.
(try, some of the XI class students)
Response : He __________ __________
2. might have been cancelled
3. should have sent a fax message
4. ought to have taken precautions which could have prevented the epidemic,
5. must have gone home as she had perhaps some urgent work there,
6. could have tried some of the XI class students instead of restricting his choice to Class XII students only
Complete the following paragraph on a school sport meeting by filling in the blanks with could not have, might not have, should not have or would not have.
At this year’s sports meeting, many records were broken but the reigning sports champion. Ravi, surprisingly could not make it to the finals in any of his favourite events. Perhaps he __________ missed so many of his practice sessions. His coach tends to think that he __________ had the time to get fit enough because of his special classes in the evenings. Even if he had tried, he __________ beaten Ramu, who was much better prepared. If it had not been for Ramu, our school __________ gained a place in the draw of the inter-school tournament.
should not have, might not have, could not have, would not have
Anant has returned from an interview. Read the dialogue, that takes place between Anant and his father. In pairs, fill in the blanks using any suitable modals. To help you, the number of words you need to use is given in brackets.
Father : Well , Anant, how was the interview?
Anant : Father, it was a real nightmare. Just about everything went wrong. I was late. I didn’t have the required papers and the GK questions ……. !
Father : Really ! Anant, please don’t think I’m lecturing you, but I’d like to say something about how you ________ (2) handled the whole business better.
Anant : Father, I wish you ________ (2) say that. You ________ (2) seen the amount of effort I put in.
Father : Well …. I have my doubts about that. First, let’s take up this business about being late.
Anant : Please remember I only got six days’ notice.
Father : No, my dear, it was more than that. If Pm not mistaken, you got the interview call on Saturday itself. If I’d been you, I _________ (2) begun my preparation on Saturday itself. Honestly you __________ (3) gone off on that weekend trip.
Anant : Father you know I’d been planning to go on that trip for ages.
Father : Well …….. if you had stayed home you ___________ (2) made a list of the papers required and filed them systematically,
Anant : Yes, perhaps you’re right, but father. those GK questions ……?
Father : What about them ? Haven’t you been reading the papers regularly?
Anant : Yes of course. But those questions were so outdated. I ___________ (3) answered them even if I had read the paper every single day for the past 10 years.
Father : Anant, there is no point complaining now. You _____ (1)/(2) be prepared to be more alert about these things.
could have, would not, must have, would have, should not have, might have, could not have, should
E. Modals – Summary
E.1. Read the following letter and choose the most suitable alternative from those given. Underline your choice. Sometimes more than one alternative is suitable.
It was lovely to get your letter and to hear the good news that you are going trekking with your friends. You (ought to/ would/ should) have a break after your exams ! You ask me what you (can/ should, will) take. Well, you (might/ can’t/ mustn’t) fit everything in a backpack so you must be selective. You (will/ can/ must) take at least one sweater because it (ought to/ should/ can) get very cold in the mountains. You (needn’t/ could/ should) pack a gas stove because there (could/ may/ will) be plenty of firewood from dead trees.
I’m sure you will have a wonderful time but I (may/ would/ should) give you a word of warning. Don’t get stuck in the Laki Pass at night. Once you’re there you (won’t be able to/ can’t be able to/ not to able to) get down and it’s very dangerous at night. By the way, you (should/ should have to/ should have) told me earlier that you were going and I (should have/ would have/ will have) given you my walking boots !
Anyway, look after yourself and enjoy your holiday.
A night at the Theatre – Role Play
Work in pairs. Below is a summary of a discussion between a parent and a child. Read through the notes and decide who will take which role. Then act out the role play. You will probably find that you sometimes need to use modals.
Background to role play
Role A – Daughter/ Son
Yours exams start next week – behind with revision – want to go to theatre to see new play – with friend – his birthday – reduced tickets – good play – need rest from work – find it difficult to concentrate on work.
Role B – Father/ Mother
Disagree with daughter/ son – worried – won’t do well in exam – don’t want them to waste time – for own good – why not worked hard before – if had worked, could go out after exams.
When you have finished, you and your partner should team up with another pair and write out the dialogue. Then act it out before the class.
A : Father, Today is the birthday of my friend Ram. I want to go to theatre to see a new play. It’s a good play and the tickets are available at reduced rates.
B : I am surprised at you, son. Your exams start next week. Don’t you know you are behind with revision? How can you think of wasting time in a theatre?
A : You are right. But think about it. Can I go on studying all the time? I need some rest from work and I think it is the proper time to do so.
B : Going to the theatre is not to relax. It will be a waste not of just 3 hours but the whole day. You will keep on thinking about the characters of the play all day.
A : Oh no. I believe that I shall be able to concentrate on the books better after that.
B : You say it because you want to get my permission. Otherwise, you know the truth.
A : Father, think about my friend. This is his birthday and we had planned for this day much in advance.
B : Well, you can do what you want. I needn’t keep you against your wish. However, I wish you should have been more careful about your studies.
A : Thanks father. Be sure that I’ll do well in the examination.