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English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 12 Active and Passive

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 12 Active and Passive

CBSE Class 10 English Workbook Solutions Unit 12 Active and Passive

A. Introduction

A.1.
Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verbs given in brackets.

1. It is a big college. More than a hundred teachers __________ (employ) there.
2. __________ (somebody/clean) the office yesterday ?

3. How much of our country’s land area __________ (cover) by forest ?

4. The hostel gates __________ (lock) at 8.00 pm everyday.
5. The parcel __________ (send) a month ago and it __________ (arrive) only yesterday.
6. Where __________ (these photographs/take) ? In Mumbai ? (you/take) them, or somebody else?

  • Did you use the same type of construction in your answers? [No]
  • What are the two types of construction called?
    • __________
    • __________

Answer:

  1. are employed
  2. Did somebody clean
  3. is covered
  4. are locked
  5. was sent, arrived
  6. were these photographs taken, Did you take
    • Active
    • Passive

A.2.
When do we use the passive voice ?
Example : Look at the following sentences :

(а) My grandfather established this steel factory in 1940.
(b) This steel factory was established in 1940 by my grandfather.

We use the passive voice when we are more interested in the action than the person who does it or when we do not know the active subject.

Read the following sentences and using the given clues, find out the reason for the use of the passive construction as in the Example above.

1. He was killed in the World War II.
Clue : Who must have killed him ? Is it obvious ?
— The doer or subject of the action is not obvious or known.

2. The Bank was looted last night.
Clue : Have the police caught the culprits ?
— Reason : Active subject is not known. OR the action needs more emphasis.

3. Sachin Tendulkar is looked upon as a sporting icon.
Clue : By whom ?
— We are more interested in the action than who does it.

4. This sort of road-side restaurants can be seen everywhere in this city.
Clue : How will you write it in active voice ?
— One can see this sort of road-side restaurants anywhere in this city.
The doer or subject is not important.

5. When he arrived at the airport, he was arrested.
Clue : Rewrite the sentence in active voice. Is it a little awkward ?
— The custom officers arrested him when he arrived at the airport. Yes. It is a little awkward.

6. Employer : On account of tight financial condition, bonus will not be paid this year.
Clue : If it is some good news, what voice will the employer use ?
—The subject or doer of the action is obvious.

7. I got my hair cut.
Clue : Look at the construction using ‘got’.
—The object or agent is obvious.

We must remember that all active constructions cannot/should not be transformed into passive constructions mechanically, even if such transformation is possible.

Example: (a) He is drinking water.
(b) Water is being drunk by him

Though sentence (b) is grammatically correct, we do not write or speak such a sentence. It is unnatural. Hence it is necessary to keep in mind that the passive voice has certain legitimate uses as discussed in A.2.

A.3.
Match the excerpts below with the text types given in the box.

Excerpts

  1. The tea leaves are picked and left to dry in the sun.
  2. 20 ml of the salt is taken in a test tube and heated over the flame of a Bunsen burner.
  3. Many villagers were adversely affected by the flash flood. It is estimated that nearly half of the standing crop has been submerged in water.

Text Types

(a) Newspaper (and formal) report _______________
(b) Description of processes _______________
(c) Academic writings including reporting of scientific experiments _______________

What are the text types in which we can expect to find frequent use of the passive ?
Answers:

(a) → (3) Many villagers were adversely affected by the flash flood. It is estimated that nearly half of the standing crop has been submerged in water.
(b) → (1) 20 ml of the salt is taken in a test tube and heated over the flame of Bunsen burner.
(c) → (2) The tea leaves are picked and left to dry in the sun.

– Newspaper (and formal) report

A.4.
Read the following excerpt from a news story and answer the questions given below the excerpt.
74 killed in Myanmar quake.

MAESAI (THAILAND). At least 74 people were killed in a strong earthquake that struck Myanmar, state media said on Friday, while a series of aftershocks have caused panic but only limited damage in Thailand and Laos.

The death toll from Thursday’s 6.8 magnitude tremor was expected to rise slightly in Myanmar after 225 homes and nine government buildings were destroyed. Over 100 people were injured, according to state television.

The quake sparked panic, but no major damage in other countries across southeast Asia has been reported. An aftershock of an estimated magnitude of 5.5 rattled Thailand on Friday but caused limited damage, although residents living in properties close to the epicentre were advised to leave their homes.

– Hindustan Times – March 26, 2011

1. Are all the verbs in the passage in passive voice ? What do you infer from this ?

No, all the verbs in passage are not in passive voice. Some are in the active voice. 1 infer from this that active voice is used when emphasis is on the subject. Passive voice is used when action is emphasised.

2. Underline the passive constructions in the passage and comment on why the passive is more appropriate than the active in these.
The passive constructions to be underlined in the above extracts are :
were killed
was expected
were destroyed
were injured
has been reported
were advised

The passive is more appropriate than the active as the doer or subject of the action is obvious or understood. Secondly, in these sentences, the action or result is more important. Therefore, passive construction is used.

3. Rewrite the second paragraph, keeping all the verbs in active voice. Begin like this …….
Authorities expect the death toll from Thursday’s 6.8 magnitude tremor would rise slightly in Myanmar after the earthquake had destroyed 225 homes and nine government buildings. According to state television the earthquake injured 100people.

4. Does the re-written paragraph read well or is it a little awkward? Give reasons for your answer.

It is a little awkward. The reason is that the sentences don’t look natural due to repetition of the words ‘the earthquake’ which is not important.

A.5.
Now read the following extracts from a passage about a diamond :
(a) The Jacob Diamond is believed to have been mined in Africa and was bought in London by Shimla-based trader called A.M. Jacob, after whom it is named.
(b) Weighing 184.75 carats, it was reckoned to be the world’s seventh largest diamond.
(c) The Jacob Diamond was bought by the sixth Nizam of Hyderabad, Mahbub Ali Khan.
(d) It was considered to be such a lucky stone that when the Nizam was offered ? 1 million by the Agha Khan, he spurned the offer.
(e) The famous diamond was later purchased by the Indian Government for ? 40 crore.

1. Give the article a title (use not more than three words)
2. Underline all the verb forms in the extracts above. What is the most common verb form in the passage called ?
3. Write the appropriate newspaper headline for extract c. above. Use the jumbled words given in the box below :

bought – diamond – sixth – Jacob – Hyderabad – by – of – Nizam

4. Now write a headline for extract e. above.
5. Compare your answers with your partner and then the rest of the class. Your teacher will then discuss the possible answers.
6. Now read extract d. again. You want to write a headline based on this extract. You also want to focus attention on the Nizam of Hyderabad, not the Agha Khan. Write a headline to summarise this extract in not more than five words.

Answers:

1. The jacob diamond
2. All the verb forms to be underlined in these extracts are :

(a) believed, mined, bought, called, named
(b) weighing, reckoned
(c) bought
(d) considered, offered, spurned
(e) purchased

The most common verb form is ‘The past participle’ or the passive form.
It can be written as ‘be form + past participle’.

3. Jacob diamond bought by sixth nizam of hyderabad
4. Famous diamond bought by indian govt. for ? 40 crore
5. Meant for class discussion.
6. Nizam refuses lucky stone offer.

A.6.
Now practise writing a few headlines based on the following clues.

(a) e.g. Police – received anonymous tip / complaint – managed to catch culprits -produced in court
Culprits caught and produced in court
Expansion: The culprits were caught and prosecuted by the police.

(b) Young Sikkimese – succeeds – scales steepest face – Mt. Kanchenjunga
Mt. kanchenjunga scaled by young sikkimese
Expansion : The steepest face ofMt. Kanchenjunga was successfully scaled by a young Sikkimese.

(a) Government – passed legislation – ban smoking in state of Tamil Nadu – people not received it well.
Legislation banning smoking in tamil nadu passed
Expansion : Legislation to ban smoking, in Tamil Nadu has been passed.

(b) The ruling party – excessive election spending – no proper accounts kept – no convincing answer to opposition questioning.
Ruling party unable to convince opposition on excessive election spending
Expansion : The opposition was not convinced by the ruling party’s answer on excessive election spending as no proper accounts were kept I maintained.

(c) Siemens, Germany has appointed new Managing Director – J. Shubert after convening General Body meeting – last week
New managing director appointed by siemens
Expansion : Mr. Shubert was appointed a new Managing Director by Siemens, Germany in its General Body Meeting last week.

(d) Rice shortage – increase production, says Government.
Increase in rice production urged by govt.
Expansion : Increase in rice production was urged by the Govt, following rice shortage.

(e) Archaeological Survey of India – has excavated Buddhist Stupa – in village in Haryana
Buddhist stupa excavated in haryana
Expansion : A Buddhist Stupa has been excavated in a village in Haryana by the Archaeological Survey of India.

(f) Cricket team – prepares – tour to England – July 2011- selectors announce team
Cricket team for england announced
Expansion : Cricket Team participating in the England Tournament July 2011 has been announced by the selectors.

A. 7.
In two places in the incomplete sentence there has been some reduction, in order to avoid repetition.
What are the two words missing between if and found ?

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 12 Active and Passive 1
And what are the three words missing between ‘if and ‘innocent’ ?
‘If (___ ____ ___) innocent’, she will sue the police for wrongful arrest.
Answer:
The two words missing are ‘… she is ….”
The three words missing are ‘… she is found …’

Read the following paragraph, which contains some repetition. Edit and rewrite the sentences so that you have one improved sentence.

(a) The policeman, having been injured by the angry crowd, was lifted up by two Arun College students. He was carried to a nearby ambulance. Then he was taken to the city hospital.

A policeman, having been injured by an angry crowd, was taken to the city hospital in an ambulance by two Arun College students.

Now give the sentence you have written a headline. Some of it has been done for you.

Policeman hospitalised by students

(b) Suppose that you wish to focus attention on the kindness or bravery of the students who helped the policeman, rather than on the policeman himself.
Rewrite passage a above so that the focus is on the students, and give your passage a headline.
Two Arun College students took a policeman to hospital after an angry crowd had injured him.
Two arun college students hospitalised injured policeman

What is the difference between the verb forms you used in ‘a’ above and those you used in V ?
Answer:
In ‘a’ the verb forms used are in passive, while in ‘b’ these are in active form.

B. Present Passive

B.1.
Read the set of instructions below and underline the main verb in each sentence.

How to magnetise a screwdriver using a coil

  1. Place a screwdriver inside a coil carrying a direct current.
  2. It becomes magnetised.
  3. Remove it from the coil.
  4. Place the screwdriver in iron filings.
  5. It attracts the filings.

When we write a description of this experiment, which tense do we use ?
Answer:
We use passive voice when we write a description of an experiment.
Complete the description of the experiment using the information in B1, hy writing the verbs in the correct form. One example has been done for you.

A screwdriver (place) is placed inside a coil carrying a direct current. The screwdriver (become) ______ magnetised. It (removed) ______ carefully and (place) ______ in iron filings. It (attract) ______ the fillings.
Answer:
becomes, is removed, placed, attracts
Main verbs to be underlined in each sentence are :

  1. place
  2. becomes
  3. remove
  4. place
  5. attracts

While writing a description of such an experiment we use simple present tense (Passive).

B.2.
Now read these instructions.
How to demagnetise a screwdriver using a coil

  1. Place the magnetised screwdriver blade inside the coil.
  2. Pass an alternating current through it.
  3. Slowly withdraw the screwdriver from the coil to a distance of about one metre while the current is flowing.
  4. It becomes demagnetised.
  5. Switch off the current.
  6. Place the screwdriver in iron filings.
  7. It does not attract the filings.

Write your own description of this experiment, using the Present Passive where appropriate.
Answer:
A magnetised screwdriver is placed inside the coil. An alternating current is passed through it. The screwdriver is slowly withdrawn from the coil to a distance of about one metre while the current is flowing. It becomes demagnetised. The current is switched off. To testify, the screw driver is placed in iron filings. The filings do not get attracted towards it.

B.3.
As illustrated in India Today, September 1996, Ponniah Ramar, 34, an amiable individual from a Tamil Nadu village, claims to be able to convert a bucket of water into half a bucket of volatile fuel by adding a secret herb -or so he says! Here is the illustration of the process of preparing the fuel.

Write a report for the Junior Science Digest. You may use a combination of active and passive voice in your report, depending on what you wish to focus attention on.

See the Workbook on Pages 228-229

Mystery fuel

Leaves of a plant of unknown identity are collected. These are put in a container of water and boiled. The mixture is allowed to cool. Lime juice and salt are added to it. Then, some chemicals of unknown identity are added to it. After a while, a golden yellow liquid becomes visible as a top layer. It is filtered and used as fuel.

Note : The passive construction is underlined.

C. Simple Past Passive

Think back to when you were a small child. For each year, from the ages of five to ten, write a sentence in the simple past passive.

When I was five, I was called Bugs Bunny by my sister.
When I was six, I wasn’t allowed to cross the road alone.
When I was seven, I was allowed to play with my neighbourhood friends.
When I was eight, I was made to prepare tea for my mother.
When I was nine, I wasn’t allowed to drive a scooty.
When I was ten, I wasn’t allowed to wear half-pants.
Show your writing to your partner. Do you share any experiences ?
(Correct each other’s work, as necessary). Classroom activity. Yes/No.

D. Modals with the Passive

Look at the picture below. At present this room is in a terrible state. Suggest what should be done to make it fit for a student to live and work in. Use different modals in the Passive voice, as in the example.

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 12 Active and Passive 2
Answer:
The electricity must be connected. The furniture should be repaired. New book-racks or book-shelves should be arranged for the books. The room in general ought to be tidied up. The windows must be cleaned. The walls should be white washed or painted.

E. Present Perfect Passive

Two months later, you return to the room to observe the changes made. Write a letter to a friend asking him to pay a visit to your newly-renovated room. Describe in detail what has been changed. Use the space given.

Dear Prem

You will be pleased to hear that my room is finally ready. It has taken a lot of time and money but it now looks much better. The walls have been painted …….

……. and the furniture ha s been repaired. New shelves have been put up at appropriate places. So, now I have a lot of space to keep my books. A new shoe rack has been arranged for footwears. The electric supply has been restored. The windows have been cleaned. Interior decoration has been made. The old paintings have been replaced. Now, the room gives a new look. Please, come to see my room.

Yours affectionately
Nikhil

F. Future Passive

An architect is speaking at a special meeting of the Town Council. She is presenting her proposals for improving one area of the town.

Using the notes below, write down what she will say to the Town Council. You may start the report as given below.

“Firstly, the polluted slum settlements will be cleared and replaced with low-cost housing…”

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 12 Active and Passive 3
Answer:
At present, there is no theatre. Out of six cinemas, one cinema will be turned into a theatre. The open sewers will be covered. The only one primary school is very old. It is overcrowded. Two more primary schools and one secondary school will be set up. There are no parks and open spaces at present. Small parks between low-cost housing blocks will be created.

G. Getting Something Done

G.1.
Study the examples below :

Examples :
1. (a) Mr. Akshay Pandey’s car was damaged in an accident.
(b) A mechanic repaired the car.

Usually in such situations, type ‘b’ sentences are rather uncommon. Instead, the same idea would be expressed as
Mr. Pandey got his car repaired.
This means that Mr. Pandey arranged for a mechanic to repair his car. He did not repair it himself. It can also be written thus :
Mr. Pandey had his car repaired.
Use the words in brackets to complete the following sentences. Use the structure : ‘have!get something done’.

  1. My neighbours __________ (their garden/relay) at the moment.
  2. I lost my identity card. I’ll have to __________ another (another/make).
  3. __________ (you/milk/deliver) to your house every day, or do you go out and buy it ?
  4. A : Can I see the photographs you took during our school day function ?
    B : I’m afraid __________ (not/the film/ develop) yet.
  5. Your suit is a little tight. Why don’t you __________? (a new one/make) ?

Answers:

  1. got their garden relaid
  2. get another identity card made
  3. Do you get milk delivered
  4. I have not got the film developed
  5. get a new one made

G.2.
Answer the following questions using ‘to have something done’. The first one has been done as an example.

  1. Why did you go to the garage? – To have my car serviced.
  2. Why did you go to the doctor? – To have my illness treated.
  3. Why (lid you go to the bank? – To ha ve my nwney deposited.
  4. Why did you go to the tailor? – To have my suit stitched.
  5. Why did you go to the photo studio? – To have my photograph taken.
  6. Why did you go to the dentist’s? – To have my teeth filled.

H. Passives – Summary

H.1.
Match the items from A and B to make meaningful sentences. There is sometimes more than one sensible combination.

A B
1. Who will be (a) be informed
2. She likes (b) been done to stop it ?
3. They ought (c) been told ?
4. They are going (d) was given the money.
5. She (e) to get hurt.
6. It will (f) have been done by them.
7. You will (g) asked to come to the party ?
8. He hates (h) being asked to parties.
9. What has (i) being looked at.
10. Has Sita (j) to be punished for what they did.

Answers:

  1. → (g)
  2. → (i)
  3. → (j)
  4. → (j/e)
  5. → (d)
  6. → (f)
  7. → (a)
  8. → (i/e)
  9. → (b)
  10. → (c)

H.2.
Complete the following sentences appropriately by using the passive form of the given verbs.

  1. There’s somebody behind us. I think we ………………… (follow)
  2. A mystery is something that ………………… (cannot/ explain)
  3. We didn’t play volleyball yesterday. The match ………………… (cancel)
  4. The minaret ………………… (restore). The work is almost finished.
  5. Every time I travel by plane, my plane ………………… (delay)
  6. I left some papers on the desk last night and I can’t find them now. They ………………… (might/ throw) away.
  7. Two people ………………… (report) to ………………… (injure) in an explosion at a factory in Bengaluru early this morning.

Answers:

  1. are being fo wed
  2. cannot be explained
  3. was cancelled
  4. has been restored
  5. gets delayed/is delayed
  6. might have been thrown
  7. have been reported, be injured/have got injured

H.3.
Rewrite the paragraph below by changing these sentences into the passive; include the agent only if necessary.

Last year Mckiney Company built two new apartment buildings in the city centre. Recently one of the buildings was damaged by an earthquake. The earthquake also destroyed the company offices in the other building. The owners of the apartments of the buildings will receive the insurance money to fix the damages. Nobody will lose the money paid for the apartments.

Two new apartment __________ Recently one of the buildings was damaged by an earthquake. The company offices in __________ The insurance __________. Money __________.
Answer:
buildings were built in the city centre by Mckiney Company the other building were also destroyed
money will be received by the owners of the apartments of the building to fix the damages, paid for the apartments will not be lost

H.4.
Look at the following newspaper article. It has two versions. Version ‘A’ is written in the active and version ‘B’ is written in the passive voice. For each piece of information, decide whether Version ‘A’ or Version ‘B’ is more appropriate. Then rewrite the passage using a combination of the two versions.

Version A
Thieves stole the famous Nor Y Koh emerald from the City Museum last night. Police believe the thieves must have forced the locks on the windows and disabled the alarms before the museum attendants had closed the museum for the night. Police have arrested a man whom someone saw acting suspiciously outside the museum.

Version B
The Famous Nor Y Koh emerald was stolen from the City Museum last night. It is believed that the window-locks had been forced and the alarms disabled before the museum was closed for the night. A man who was seen acting suspiciously outside the museum has been arrested.

Answer:
Version B is more appropriate.
A new passage combining the two versions :

Nor y koh emerald stolen

The famous Nor Y Koh emerald was stolen from the museum last night. Police believe the thieves must have forced the locks on the windows and disabled the alarms before the Museum was closed for the night. A man who was seen acting suspiciously outside the museum has been arrested.

H.5.
Shahin, a newspaper reporter, visited the World Book Fair at Pragati Maidan. Suddenly he saw a stall in flames. He jotted down a few notes in his notepad, Using the clues and your own ideas write a newspaper report in the space provided. Use Active or Passive, depending on what you wish to focus on.

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 12 Active and Passive 4
Answer:

Fire in world book fair

New Delhi: 10 October (PTI) The interest of book lovers was marred when the stall of M/s Rendezvous Publishers at the World Book Fair at Pragati Maidan suddenly caught fire at about 10 am. There were over 2000 books being displayed. The fire spread in no time. There were many visitors in the stall. They got panicked due to smoke and sudden flames rising up. About 31 people were injured, including 11 women, 6 men and 14 children, in the sudden stampede caused by the panic. All the injured were taken to the nearby hospital. Four persons are still in the Intensive Care Unit. Fire Brigade was immediately called. But, strangely, water was not available nearby to extinguish the fire. The fire could be controlled only by noon. The cause  of the fire could not be established (known).

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