English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses

CBSE Class 10 English Workbook Solutions Unit 2 Tenses

A. The concept of tense and time :
See the Workbook on Page 11
Let us begin by studying the relationship between the different verb forms and the time they denote.

A. 1.
Work individually
Indicate the tense and time of each of the highlighted verbs in the table below. The first has been done as an example.

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 1

A.2.
Now compare your answers with those of your partner and discuss the following questions and write your observations in the given space.

(a) Is the time referred to in the sentences always the same as the tense of the verb ? What conclusion can you draw from your observation ? Write your observation below.
— The time referred to in the sentences is not always the same as the tense of the verb. It is because some verbs or tenses act differently. For instance, simple present tense also acts to show future time.

(b) How did you find out the tense of the verbs in the sentences above ? Are there any indicators or markers that reveal the tense of the verb ? Write your observation below.
— I found the tense of the verbs from its usage. The various verb forms are the indicators and markers that reveal the tense of the verb.

(c) Did you find any verb form that can be called ‘future form’ ? (You will learn more about the different ways of talking about future later in this unit.)
— Yes, in sentence 1 ‘are planning’ is of present continuous, but it refers to future time.

(d) Why do you think verb forms are often labelled as ‘simple’ or ‘indefinite’, ‘progressive’ or ‘continuous’, ‘perfect’ and ‘perfect continuous’ ?
— Verb forms are often labelled as ‘simple’ or ‘indefinite’, ‘progressive’, or ‘continuous’, ‘perfect’ and ‘perfect continuous’ because of the action or time referred to by them.

B. Present Progressive
(Progressive = continuous)

B. 1.
Form
See the Workbook on Page 13

B. 1.
Meaning
Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the present progressive form of the given verbs.

(i) “You’ve put on weight, Cheryl.”
“Yes. I …….. (eat) a lot these days.”
(ii) “Hurry up ! We (get) late for school.”
“Just a second, please ! I …….. (come).”
(iii) Temperatures …….. (rise) all over the world.
(iv) “You …….. not …….. (wear) this dirty shirt to office. Wait, I’ll give you another.”
(v) “I …….. not …….. (do) your homework-forget it. I still haven’t forgotten how you fought with me in the morning.”
(vi) The Prime Minister …….. (leave) for Russia tomorrow on a 5 day state visit.
(vii) “You …….. (be) very rude, Abhi.”
(viii) She always …….. (make) excuses for coming late.
(ix) Aabha is …….. (write) a novel these days.
Answers:
(i) am eating
(ii) are getting, am coming
(iii) are rising
(iv) are, wearing
(v) am, doing
(vi) is leaving
(vii) are
(viii) makes
(ix) writing

The table below shows different uses or meanings of the present progressive. Match the verbs in the above sentences with the uses or meanings they convey.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 2

It is a little difficult to match the sentences with uses of present progressive tense. Here are the answers :

(a) → (vi)
(b) → (iv)
(c) → (vii)
(d) → (i)
(e) → (m)
(f) → (v)
(g) → (ix)
(h) → (ii)
(i) → (viii)

Compare your answers with these and have a class discussion.
Note: Answers have been given above. Students to discuss at class level as desired.

B. 2.
Verbs that are normally NOT used in the progressive form.

(i) Which sentence in each of the following pairs is acceptable and why ?
1. (a) I am respecting you.
(b) I respect you.

2. (a) My son loves to draw and paint.
(b) My son is loving to draw and paint.

3. (a) We are having two cars.
(b) We have two cars.

4. (a) I am thinking you are new to this place.
(b) I think you are new to this place.

5. (a) The cake smells good.
(b) The cake is smelling good.

Answers:

1. (a) not acceptable, as ‘respecting’, a verb of emotion, can’t be used in Continuous Tense.
(b) is correct

2. (a) is correct
(b) The verb ‘love’, is again of emotion and can’t be used in Continuous Tense.

3. (a) The verb ‘have’ is of possession ; it can’t come in Continuous Tense. So it is incorrect.
(b) is correct

4. (a) The verb ‘thinking’ is not acceptable as it, being the verb of emotion, can’t be used in Continuous Tense.
(b) is correct

5. (a) ‘The cake is smelling good’ is not acceptable as verb ‘smell’ being of emotion/ sensation can’t be used in Continuous Tense.
Note : The verbs of emotion/sensation can’t be used in Continuous Tense. Hence, if these are used in this Tense, these are not acceptable.

See the Workbook on Page 15

(ii) Can you explain the difference between ?

1. (a) I just can’t imagine how you got into such a mess.
(b) You’re imagining things ; nothing will happen.

2. (a) The coffee tastes bitter.
(b) Mother is tasting coffee to check if it is too bitter.

3. (a) My teacher admires my art work.
(b) She is admiring the latest painting I have made.

4. (a) The doctor is feeling the patient’s pulse.
(b) The patient is feeling better.
Answers:
1. (b) imagining refers to a mental state. So it can’t come in present progressive tense.

2. (a) There is universal truth about coffee taste. It is all right. But in 2 (b) ‘tasting’ is in progressive tense. It can’t come in this tense.

3. (a) This sentence is all right as ‘admires’ here is related to sense appreciation.
(b) The sentence is not acceptable as ‘admiring’ here should not be in progressive. ‘Admire’, the verb of emotion, is not used in continuous tenses.

4. (a) It is all right as the doctor is, at present, (time of speaking) feeling the patient’s pulse.
(b) The patient is feeling better as it is not actually ‘feeling’ but feeling shows the general state of health.

B.3.
Complete the following sentences with the appropriate forms of the given verbs.

  1. Every day I (go) to school in a bus but today I (go) by car because the bus operators are on strike.
  2. “Baichung Bhutia (pass) the ball to Bannerjee ; Bannerjee (take) a shot at the goal but it (be) way above the goal post. The Indians (attack) much more now …”
  3. I (think) you (make) a mistake by signing this contract.
  4. The doctor (say) mother (respond) to the treatment well.
  5. Farzana (be) not well. She (not come) to school today.

Answers:

  1. go, am going
  2. passes, takes, is, attack
  3. think, are making
  4. said, responded/says, is responding
  5. is, hasn’t come

B. 4.
Study the following picture carefully and then write a paragraph to describe what is happening.
See the Workbook on Page 17
Answer:
I find it interesting to describe the picture given above. It is the scene of the railway platform. The train has arrived some moments before at the platform. Some passengers are loading their luggage or belongings. Coolies are seen carrying goods to and fro on the platform. There are stalls selling various things needed by the passengers. Many passengers are walking to and fro to find the platform they are to go to. Some passengers are sipping tea while others are reading newspapers. Some are before the ‘Enquiry’ seeking information about the train they are to travel in. I hear the noise and hustle and bustle of a typical railway station platform. Some rehriwalas are serving purees and vegetables. The train which is about to leave the station seems to be starting to go. On the other platform passengers are waiting for their train to come. The railway platform is giving out a typical presentation of real India.

B. 5.
Here is a letter Nikita wrote to her friend Susie who lives in Milan, Italy. What verb forms has she used in this letter ? Has she used a mix of verb forms ? Is there anv particular form that has been used more frequently ?
See the Workbook on Page 18
Answer:
In this letter the verb forms mostly used are of Present Indefinite and Present Continuous Tenses. Actually, these forms are a mix of various Tenses. Along with these Tenses, Present Perfect Tense has also been used. Students themselves shall see that usage of various Tenses depends greatly on the subject. This can be seen after reading the text of the letter.

B.6.
As Susie, write a reply to Nikita’s letter. Do take care to answer all the questions Nikita has asked you. What verb forms would you like to use ?

Milan
25th October, 20 – –
Dear Nikita

It was a great pleasure to go through your loving letter. I find it interesting that you have to do a lot of work at your end. Here I am also leading a very busy schedule of time. I am trying to reply to all your queries.

I am doing fine. I haven’t been able to spare more time to the writing of the novel. Regarding Bharatnatyam I am learning it and find it is simply awesome. Here in Milan the Indian Dance School is providing this facility to a lot of Indian and Italian students. Mr. Subramaniam Swamy imparts training and teaches various norms. I am learning Bharatnatyam as I have a passion to learn it.

I am still contemplating to visit you this winter. The winter is welcome at your end. However, it is not that much intense as it is here in Milan. I think we should come next month. We plan to stay for a short period after we come. We would like to visit New Delhi, Jaipur, Agra, Udaipur, Gwalior etc. It shall be a great pleasure to stay with you. I shall surely write to you about our visiting dates,as and when these are finalised.

My mom is getting better. She is receiving physiotherapy regularly and is improving day by day.

I shall write again as I have to go to attend my Bharatnatyam class.

Yours
Susie

C. Present Perfect

C. 1.
Form
• Have/has + past participle
• Have/ has + been + past participle
Work individually.

C. 2.
Meaning
Complete the following sentences by using the present perfect form (as given in C.l) of the given verbs.

(a) The kids (work) really hard for the show. Now, don’t cancel it, please.
(b) Yippy ! I (select) for the interschool dance competition !
(c) I … (contest) five elections so far.
(d) John ? O, he is a delightful boy. I (know) him since his childhood.
(e) … you ever (be) to the Taj Mahal ?

Answers:

(a) The kids have worked (work) really hard for the show. Now, don’t cancel it, please.
(b) Yippy ! I have been selected (select) for the interschool dance competition !
(c) I have contested (contest) five elections so far.
(d) John ? O, he is a delightful boy. I have known (know) him since his childhood.
(e) Have you ever been (be) to the Taj Mahal ?

See the Workbook on Page 20

C. 3.
Present Perfect vs. Simple Past

(a) Explain the difference in the meaning of the following pairs of sentences. You may like to use the given hints.

1. (a) I have been a teacher for five years.
(b) I was a teacher for five years.
(Hint : Is the speaker still a teacher ?)

2. (a) I always got good marks in English.
(b) I have always got good marks in English.
(Hint : Is the speaker still studying ?)

3. (a) Geeta has never met her cousin.
(b) Geeta never met her cousin.
(Hint : Is Geeta’s cousin alive ?)

4. (a) I have never been to Timbuktu.
(b) I never went to Timbuktu.
(Hint: Is the speaker talking about a particular journey or his travels so far ?)

5. (a) Jose has completed seven assignments today.
(b) Jose completed seven assignments today.
(Hint : Is the day over ? Has Jose more assignments to write ?)

Answers:

1. (a) T has been a teacher for five years.
(b) Now he is not a teacher.

2. (a) T always got good marks in English.
(b) Now ‘I’ is not studying.

3. (a) Geeta never met her cousin in her life.
(b) Geeta’s cousin is not alive.

4. (a) T has never been to Timbuktu.
(b) T is talking about his travels so far to Timbuktu.

5. (a) Jose completed seven assignments today.
(b) Jose has completed seven assignments today. He still has more assignments to write.

Note :
(a) 1. Sentence (a) shows that the speaker is still a teacher, while sentence (b) shows that the speaker is no longer a teacher.
2. Sentence (a) shows that the speaker is not studying now, while sentence (b) shows that the speaker is still studying.
3. Sentence (a) shows that Geeta’s cousin is alive, while sentence (b) shows that her cousin is not alive.
4. In sentence (a) the speaker is talking about his travels in general, whereas in sentence (b) the speaker is talking about a particular travel.
5. In sentence (a) the day is not over and Jose has some more assignments to write, while in sentence (b) the day is over and Jose has no more assignments to write.

(b) What conclusion can you draw from these sentences about the use of present perfect and simple past forms of verbs ?
Answer.
The conclusion I draw from these sentences is that many of these show completion
of an action in the past. Some show that the action is still not complete and is to be completed next. Actually present perfect tense shows that the action is complete at the time of speaking. An action denoted by past means that the action went on for some time but is not shown to have been completed.

C.4.
Look at the incomplete sentences below. Using the information provided, complete each sentence using a suitable tense. Follow the examples :
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 3

  1. 1947 until now India There _______ (be) many wars.
  2. 1991 There _______ (be) a war in the Persian Gulf.
  3. 1953 Edmund Hilary and Tensing first _______ (climb) Everest.
  4. 1953 until now India Many people _______ (climb) Everest.
  5. 1983 India _______ (win) the Prudential Cricket World Cup in England.
  6. 1983 until now India _______ (win) many limited-overs cricket trophies.

Answers:

  1. have been
  2. was
  3. climbed
  4. have climbed
  5. won
  6. has won

C.5.
The present perfect is often used with the following time expressions
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 4
Choose five of these time expressions and make sentences about interesting items of news concerning yourself.
Answers:

  1. Until now I have not known how I met with an accident.
  2. So far I have not known where the extra-terrestrial creatures come from.
  3. Mohan has not yet revealed what for he came to me.
  4. I have not met my friend recently.
  5. My brother has grown plump in recent years.

Now make groups of four, and tell (not read) each other your news.
Answer:
For classroom discussion.

C. 6.
What did your village/town/city look like five to ten years ago and how has it changed since then ? Write a short paragraph describing the changes in its size, population, traffic, buildings, lifestyle etc. What verb forms would you mainly use to describe the changes ?
(Hint: Simple Past and Present Perfect forms.)
Answer.

How has our city changed ?

Our city has greatly changed now. Ten years ago it had a population of eight lakhs. Now it has around fiftee to twenty. There used to be a few thousand cars then. Now every street or road has as many cars as are human beings. There were no new colonies. Now it has several sectors and new multiplexes. Almost everywhere there is a continuous construction activity. Malls, air conditioned showrooms, etc, were just absent then. Now there is an enormity of them. The traffic has increased manifold as has the city’s size. It has swallowed the agricultural land that it once had around it. Almost everywhere one can see a variety of traffic like cars, buses, trucks, tractors, auto-rickshaws and rickshaws. Now the crowd and traffic jams add to the chaos on city roads. This way there is always a great hustle and bustle almost everywhere with enormous growth of the city’s population. No doubt, people’s standard of living has increased with a healthy lifestyle. They are now awakened towards the healthcare trends through yoga, jogging, walking etc.

C. 7.
Your teacher will divide the class into groups of four and ask each group to present a TV/Radio News Bulletin. In each group students will take turns to be news presenters and correspondents. The news presenters will break the news and ask the correspondents to give details of what has happened/ is happening. Your group may like to include the following news in your bulletin.

See the Workbook on Page 23

After the bulletin is over, discuss what verb forms were mostly used.
Answer:
Classroom activity. Students to draw a bulletin covering these topics like the one they did in Radio Show in Class IX.

D. Simple Past Tense-Past Perfect Tense

D. 1.
Underline the main verbs in the sentences below. Then rewrite the sentences in the correct order of events.

  1. The people began to starve.
  2. In 1925 a disease destroyed the crops in one village.
  3. Later, the village people came to retrieve their children.
  4. The chief decided to send the children of the village to live in a settlement in the next valley.
  5. However, they had married outside the village.
  6. This caused a war between the two villages.

Answers.

  1. began
  2. destroyed
  3. came
  4. decided
  5. married
  6. caused

The correct order for rewriting these sentences will be :
2, 1, 4, 5, 3, 6

Now work with your partner and tick (✓) the sentence in which a different tense has been used. In pairs, discuss why this has been done.
Sentence No : 5 uses a different tense because
— the event denoted by it has already taken place before other events described.

D. 2.
Study the following sentences.

  1. I didn’t know Jim had migrated to the United States.
  2. When we arrived at the theatre, the show had already begun.
  3. The patient had died before the ambulance reached the hospital.
  4. He had got married by the time he started working.
  5. I couldn’t open the locker because I had mislaid the keys.
  6. Byom Bakshi felt that he had seen the man somewhere before.

As you can see, each of the above sentences describes two different actions, events or situations. Work with a partner and list them as shown in the example.

A. Occurred Fifst

  1. Example : Jim had migrated to the United States.
  2. The show had already begun
  3. The patient had died
  4. He had got married
  5. Iliad ,nislaid the keys
  6. that he had seen the man somewhere before

B. Occurred Later

  1. I did not know it. (The speaker came to know the fact later.)
  2. when we arrived at the theatre
  3. the ambulance reached the hospital
  4. he started working
  5. I couldn’t open the locker
  6. Byom Bakshi felt

What verb forms have been used in (A) and (B) respectively ?

A. In it the verb forms of past perfect have been used.
B. In it verb forms of simple past have been used.
What conclusion can you draw from your analysis ?
Answer:
The conclusion is simple. If there are two/actions in a sentence, the action Is taking place before the second shall be in past perfect and those= occurring later shall be in simple past.

D. 3.
Complete the following sentences correctly by using the simple past or past perfect forms of the given verbs.

  1. We _____ already _____ (reach) home when Irfan _____ (say) that he _____ (forget) his books at school.
  2. Wendy _____ (wake up) late, then she _____ (miss) her school bus, so by the time she (reach) school, it _____ already _____ (start).
  3. I _____ (visit) my town again ten years after I _____ (leave) it and (find) _____ that it _____ completely _____ (change).
  4. When Feroze and Mehr _____ (meet) for the first time, they (not like) each other but now they are married.

Answer:

  1. had, reached, said, had forgotten
  2. woke up, missed, reached, had, started
  3. visited, had left, found, had, changed
  4. met, had not liked

D.4.
Find the incorrect sentences and then rewrite them correctly. Put a tick mark (✓) against the sentences that you think are correct.

  1. By 2005, the singer recorded ten albums.
  2. When I got to the bank, it had closed.
  3. Timothy, the tiger, had killed five calves yesterday.
  4. When Rehman met Mini ten years later, she grew up into a young girl.
  5. By the time we reached the airport, the flight had left.
  6. We hardly went a kilometre or so when the car broke down.

Answers:

  1. By 2005, the singer had recorded ten albums.
  2. When I got to the bank, it had closed.
  3. Timothy, the tiger, killed five calves yesterday.
  4. When Rehman met Mini ten years later, she had grown up into a young girl.
  5. By the time we reached the airport, the flight had left.
  6. We had hardly gone a kilometre or so when the car broke down.

D.5.
Carefully study each of the following events or situations described in a set of three sentences/phrases. Then write a short paragraph to describe each event/ situation as shown in the example. Your paragraph should begin with the description of the second event in each case. Use the verb form had + past participle to describe the earliest of the past events.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 5
Answers:
Event 1
We arrived at work on Monday morning and found that somebody had burgled the office the previous night. The burglary had occurred on Sunday night. We immediately informed the police.

Event 2
I tried to phone Mayank this morning but the servant told me that he had gone out with his family. So I couldn’t contact him.

Event 3
Jayanti met Rohit who had returned from holiday. After meeting both went to see a film.

Event 4
The seminar participants arrived in Gangtok. They found that all the arrangements had been finalised for the seminar. So they met the professors from the UK the same evening.

E. Interpreting Data

E.1.
The following graph shows the number of visitors (in millions) who visited the famous Salarjung Museum in Hyderabad between 2000 and 2010 as well as the number of visitors expected to visit it in the next ten years.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 6

See the Workbook on Pages 28-29

E.2.
Now write short paragraphs to describe the trends in the other groups of visitors featured in the graph.

• Overseas Visitors
In 2000 the number of overseas visitors to the Museum was 3.75 millions. In 2005 it rose to 6.75 and in 2010 it had risen to 8 millions. In 2015 and 2020 it might be 10.5 and 12 millions respectively.

• Domestic Visitors
In 2000 the number of domestic visitors to the Museum was 2.00 millions. In 2005 it rose to 2.5 millions and in 2010 it had risen to 3.00 millions. In 2015 and 2020 it might be 3.5 millions and 4.00 millions respectively.

• Total Number of Visitors
In 2000 the total number of visitors to the Museum was 8.5 millions. In 2005 it rose to 12.5. In 2010 it had risen to 15 million. In 2015 it might be 19 million and in 2010 it may be 23 million.

F. Future Time Reference
We can talk of the present and the past with a degree of certainty. But this is not so with the future. So, we use various verb forms to refer to future events, depending on what we may think is likely to happen, or what is our plan or intention.

F.1.
Work with a partner
In the following sentences, choose and circle the verb form you think best fits the meaning of each sentence. You have been provided an example.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 7

F.2.
Working with the same partner, use the information given below and discuss why you chose a particular verb form in F.1. Then match the information in the bubbles below with the sentences, and put the sentence number in the space provided, as shown in the example.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 8
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 9
Answer:
In sentence 1, in F. 1 is, ie, the present tense, was chosen because near future is usually shown in this tense.
In sentence 2, in F.l the verb will have left was chosen because the sense of the sentence is in Future Perfect Tense.
In sentence 3, the verb is about to has been chosen because the sentence shows the indication of this action.
In sentence 4, the verb is opening was chosen because the action indicated by the sentence is sure to happen at a particular time in the future. This is shown by next week.
In sentence 5, the verb will be living was chosen because the action is a simple statement of future plan or intention.
In sentence 6, the verb am going to be was chosen because the sentence is a statement of a planned event expected to occur.

G. Tenses – Summary
Read the biodata of Sangeeta Rani Puri, India’s swimming sensation. Then, complete the interview in the spaces provided. Do NOT add any extra information. Use appropriate tenses.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 10
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Tenses 11
Interviewer : Sangeeta, since you were in India for only a short while before you flew to Atlanta, would you tell us a little about yourself ?
Sangeeta : Well, I’m an Indian and I’m proud to be one.

I : Please tell us about your parents.
S : My father ___________________ from Trinidad.
I : Have you taken part in any of the National Championships ?
S : (Very excited) Yes, ___________________at the Junior Nationals at Vijaywada.
I : How ___________________Senior Nationals ?
S : I won seven events and ___________________
I : How do you rate your performance in the Atlanta Olympics in 1996 ?
S : I ___________________in the 50 metres freestyle. It’s true that I ___________________in Atlanta. But ___________________
I : Have you ___________________for the future ?
S : I ___________________ in the USA. And of course I ___________________for as long as possible. Also I ___________________in the Olympics.
I : Thank you, Sangeeta. I wish you all the best.
S : Thank you very much.
Answers.
Interviewer : Sangeeta, since you were in India for only a short while before you flew to Atlanta, would you tell us a little about yourself ?
Sangeeta : Well, I’m an Indian and I’m proud to be one.

I : Please tell us about your parents.
S : My father is a Non-Resident Indian (NRI) and he hails from Trinidad.
I : Have you taken part in any of the National Championships ?
S : (Very excited) Yes, I set six new national records in five days at the Junior Nationals at Vijaywada.
I : How did you fare at Kolkata in October 1995 at the Senior Nationals ?
S : I won seven events and set five new national records.
I : How do you rate your performance in the Atlanta Olympics in 1996 ?
S : I felt proud to represent India in the 50 metres freestyle. It’s true that I clocked the best time of my life: 29.02 seconds in Atlanta. But I couldn’t win a medal.
I : Have you any plans for the future ?
S : I have won a Swimming Scholarship and am training in the USA. And, of course, I would be glad to represent India for as long as possible. Also, I hope to win an Olympic Medal in the Olympics.
I : Thank you, Sangeeta. I wish you all the best.
S : Thank you very much.

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