English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 4 Non Finites
CBSE Class 10 English Workbook Solutions Unit 4 Non Finites
In class 10 English workbook Unit 4, we discuss about Verb + ing as a Non- Finite, Non-finites, Infinitives as Non-Finites, The Past Participle and Non-Finites Summary
Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 4 What are non-finites ?
Read the items given below. Some are sentences and have a finite verb. Others are phrases and have a non-finite verb. Write [S] phrases in the boxes provided. for sentences and [p] for Phrases in the boxes provided
Now read the items again. Circle the non-finite verbs. Write them in the box below. How many types of non-finite verbs do you have ?
Playing, fallen, won, Hanging, Ignoring, To swim
We have three types of non-finite verbs.
Look at the pictures and complete the story below them, using an appropriate form of one of the verbs in the box below.
See Workbook on Page 52
One night Bhola, while + __________ the sky from his verandah, heard a strange sound. Just about + __________ in the forest nearby was a spacecraft. Next day the people of the town were + __________ away from their homes, frightened by the strange creatures who had landed in their midst. The intruders ran all over the town, + __________ food, money and all that they could lay their hands on. Scared out of his wits, Bhola hid in the bushes. + __________ through his binoculars, Bhola * __________ one of the intruders + __________ into a box. On + __________ a small mouse + __________ out of the box, the intruder * __________ off in terror. This gave Bhola an idea. He spent the next day + __________ for mice.
Next morning Bhola * __________ a cage full of mice to the spacecraft and set them free. On + __________ the mice, the intruders were too frightened + __________ on Earth any longer, and they * __________ in their spacecraft immediately.
watching, landing, running, stealing
Peering, saw, climb, seeing, climb, ran
searching, took, seeing, to stay, flew
Now put the verbs you have just filled in above, in column A (verbs marked +) and B (verbs marked*) below.
Study the verbs given in Column A and Column B. How do they differ from each other ?
The verbs in column A are all non-finites, ie, they show the non-finite position of the action denoted by them.
The verbs in Column A are not controlled by the number, person and tense of their subject. Therefore they are non-finites.
The verbs in Column B are controlled by the number, person and tense of their subject. Therefore they are finites.
What are the verbs in Column A called (Write in the box below) ?
Here is part of a letter that Anuradha wrote to Raji about her experience in a city that she was visiting. Complete the letter using suitable non-finites.
When I saw a beggar ________ near the Big Temple, I decided to help him. But when the other beggars saw me ________ him some money, they started ________ around me. I was a little embarrassed and ________ the menace, I entered a hotel nearby. The manager of the hotel made me ________ the need for caution while ________ beggars. After ________ me, he went on to ask me if I would like ________ a guide ________ me round the city. I politely refused his offer of help and went back to my own hotel.
begging, giving, gathering, to avoid
judge, helping, informing, to have, to take
Given below is an extract from the story The Iron Man and The Space Being. Complete the story using suitable non-finite verbs. You may choose words from the box given below.
worry change peer hit frighten blaze
One day there came some strange news. Everybody was talking about it. Round eyes, busy mouths, ………………. voices-everybody was talking about it.
One of the stars of the night sky had begun ………………. This star had always been a very tiny star, of no importance at all. It had shone up there for billions and trillions and zillions of years in the Constellation of Orion, In all its time this tiny star had never changed in any way.
Now suddenly, it began to get bigger. Astronomers ………………. through their telescopes, noticed it first. They watched it with ………………. frowns.
The tiny star was definitely getting bigger. And not just bigger. But bigger and bigger and Bigger. Each night it was BIGGER.
Bigger than the Dog-star, the large, coloured twinkler at the heel of the Hunter Orion.
Bigger than Jupiter, the great ………………. planet. Everybody could see it clearly, night after night, as it grew and Grew and GREW. They stared up with frightened faces.
Till at last it hung there in the sky over the world, blazing down, the size of the moon, a deep gloomy red. And now there could he only one explanation. The star was getting bigger because it was getting nearer. And nearer and Nearer and, NEARER.
It was rushing towards the world.
Faster than a bullet:
Faster than any rocket.
Faster even than a meteorite.
And if it hit the world at that speed why, the whole world would simply be blasted to hits in the twinkling of an eye. It would be like an express train ………………. a bowl of goldfish.
No wonder the people stared up with frightened faces. No wonder the astronomers watched it through their telescopes with worried frowns.
frightened, to blaze, peered
worried, blazing, hitting
While reading a magazine advertising home products, Sakshi Aggarwal came across an advertisement for a stain remover called Dr Clean. She decided to buy the product but it caused more harm than good. Complete the letter of complaint she writes to the company using appropriate words.
I wish ________ to your notice the ridiculous product you have recently launched. I saw a TV advertisement for Dr Clean and its ability ________ ‘99 top stains’. I bought the product and ________ the least, I regret the money I spent on it. You claim that your Dr Clean stain removal keeps clothes in wearable condition for a long time and thus helps reduce clothing costs. However, let me tell you what happened when I tried ________ a stain left by tea from my shirt. ________ the stain remover on the stain does seem to make the stain fainter temporarily. But here is the problem : a little after you have sprayed Dr Clean on the fabric, the area around the stain seems to melt away. Soon, there is no stain. In fact, there is a hole where the stain was !
Surely this is NOT what you meant when you advertised. The stain will no longer be visible to the naked eye ?
A Disillusioned Customer
to bring, to clean, to say
to remove, Putting/Using
Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 4 Verb + ing as a Non- Finite
See Workbook on Page 57
Underline the present participle and circle the noun it describes in the following sentences as shown in the example above.
(a) The policeman saw a (thief) escaping on a motorbike.
(b) Hearing a loud sound, the (students) rushed out of the classroom.
(c) I can hear the school (choir) practising in the auditorium.
(d) The (player) was happy seeing that his opponent was growing tired.
Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the words given in the box below.
When the teacher caught the boy _________ in the examination, he stood there _________ and _________,_________ the loud admonition of the teacher, the headmaster rushed in. The boy started to cry _________ that he would be expelled from the school. _________ the situation very quickly, the headmaster asked the boy to follow him to his room.
cheating, trembling, quivering Hearing, fearing, Assessing
See Workbook on Pages 58-59
Complete the sentences using ‘ing’ form of the verbs from the box.
apply buy use meet
- The doctor advised Neelam to avoid _________ ghee as a cooking medium.
- I have had to put off _________ a scooter for my son until he completes his college studies.
- How about _________ for the post of teacher in the neighbouring school ?
- By the time we finished _________ the house, the children had become hungry.
- She went around _________ all the tenants in the apartment house, canvassing support for her cleanliness campaign.
- I am afraid the doctor is busy now. Would you mind _________ a few minutes ?
Now combine the following pairs of sentences using a suitable verb in its ‘ing’ form.
We all make mistakes. It is human.
Making mistakes is human.
Sheela tells lies. It has made her unpopular.
Telling lies has made Sheela unpopular.
We tried to enter the pavilion. The police prevented us.
The police prevented our entering the pavilion.
Our neighbours made a lot of noise. They apologised.
Our neighbours apologised for making a lot of noise.
Murari passed the examination. I congratulated him.
I congratulated Murari on passing the examination.
She talks too much. I don’t like it.
I don’t like her talking too much.
We must appreciate other people’s achievements. It promotes goodwill.
Appreciating other people’s achievements promotes goodwill.
Why don’t you try ?
Give the solutions to the problems below using the ‘ing’ form of the verb. Make the solutions as unusual as possible.
Example : I can’t open this bottle of cold milk.
(а) Why don’t you try hitting it with a hammer ?
(b) Why don’t you try slicing it with a knife ?
There’s a fly in my soup.
Why don’t you try swapping it with a broom ?
My car isn’t starting.
Why don’t you try starting it with giving it a kick ?
My hands and feet are frozen !
Why don’t you try beating them with the wall ?
A man is trying to steal my car !
Why don’t you try grabbing the man first ?
My sister/brother doesn’t stop talking.
Why don’t you try catching her/his head and bashing it with a club ?
I have a headache.
Why don’t you try beating it with a hammer ?
No accounting for tastes
Fill in the blanks with verb + ing. Share your lists with your partner.
Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 4 Infinitives as Non-Finites
See Workbook on Page 62
Explain the following signs using to + verb as shown:
Work in pairs. One of you will ask the questions, the other will give the answers with the help of the clues in brackets. Write them down in the spaces provided. The first one has been done for you.
Why did you go out ? (post a letter)
I went out to post a letter.
Why are you waiting here ? (meet the teacher)
1 want to meet the teacher.
Why did you return home early ? (help with the housework)
I wanted to help with the housework.
Why is Raju going abroad ? (visit his sister)
He is going abroad to visit his sister.
Why did Kiran sell her car ? ( buy a van)
Kiran sold her car to buy a van.
Why did you travel by bus ? (save money)
7 travelled by bus to save money.
Complete the sentences as in the example, using the verbs given in the box. Do not use any verbs more than once.
remind warn encourage advise ask permit
Example : “Don’t forget to return my book.” He reminded me not to forget to return his book.
“You promised that you would not tell mother about our quarrel.”
He promised me not to tell my mother about our quarrel.
“If I were you, I’d go to the police.”
He advised me to go to the police.
“Go on, buy a new dress,” Sushila said.
Sushila encouraged me to go on and buy a new dress.
“Please don’t drive so fast,” Anil said.
Anil warned me not to drive so fast.
“Rupa, you can go to the library,” said the teacher.
The teacher asked Rupa to go to the library.
Rewrite the sentences using an infinitive instead of the underlined clause.
Example : Hillary was the first man who climbed Mt. Everest.
Hillary was the first man to climb Mt. Everest.
- Shah found that ₹20.000 of the sales money was missing from the box.
- The Court declared that the officer was guilty of gross negligence.
- Evidence showed that the document was a fabrication.
- The court warned the representatives that they should not tamper with the evidence.
- The minister was annoyed when he learnt that he had lost the elections.
- You would be silly if you dyed vour hair green.
- Shah found ₹ 20,000 of the sales money missing from the box.
- The Court declared the officer to be guilty of gross negligence.
- Evidence showed the document to be fabricated.
- The Court warned the representatives not to tamper with the evidence.
- The minister was annoyed to learn that he had lost the elections.
- You would be silly to dye your hair green.
Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 4 Verb + ing and Infinitives
1. I saw her cross the road.
2. I saw her crossing the road.
What is the difference in the use of the underlined verb in the two sentences ?
‘Cross’ in the first sentence means that the action of crossing the road is not yet complete. ‘Crossing’ in the second sentence means that the action is just nearing its completion (being in the process of ).
In pairs, use the grid below to complete the following sentences.
- Our English teacher refused to allow us to go outside.
- Ram’s mother let all of us play outside.
- Making students study against their will is unfair.
- ‘Dear Sir,
Would you kindly permit me to invite your attention towards ………
Then read your answers out to the rest of the class
Complete the following letter. Put the verbs in brackets into either the ‘ing’ form or the infinitive with to. Use the box below to help you.
Dear Mr. Banerjee
Thank you for your letter offering (offer) to help build an auditorium for our school. You will be happy to learn that the parents of our school have suggested __________ (approach) their association for funds. It is an idea worth __________ (pursue) and we propose __________ (hold) a meeting on the 15th of this month. I should very much like you to attend the meeting as I want __________ (introduce) you to the parents and I hope __________ (be) able to use your kind offer as a motivating factor for others.
The architect has arranged __________ (supply) us with the blueprints of the building. The contractor has promised __________ (deliver) the materials within a month. So our management does not mind __________ (start) the work even before the funds have been arranged in full. Please do not hesitate __________ (contact) me if you have any further queries. I look forward to __________ (hear) from you soon.
to be to supply
starting to contact
Study the following table
Now complete the following sentences appropriately using ‘ing’ or infinitive construction. Use the grid given above to write your answers. You may have to add prepositions in some sentences.
- Would you mind giving me your pen ?
- Most children enjoy playing cricket.
- I’ll never forget to have swum in this pool when I was 18 years old.
- I remember meeting Mohan earlier.
- Our teacher dislikes students shirking work.
- The commander told the soldiers to march ahead.
- I do not intend to hurt you.
- The inspector is certain to get to the truth of the case.
- My father was very angry with the grocer under weighing.
- My brother likes seeing TV much.
‘Remember to do’ and ‘Remember doing’
Study the examples given below.
(a) I must remember to take my science book.
(b) I remember meeting you in the park.
Some verbs might take either form depending on their meaning.
Which sentence refers to something which actually happened ?
Sentence (b) refers to the action that had actually happened.
Which sentence refers to something which hasn’t actually happened ?
Sentence (a) shows it.
Complete the sentences using the correct non-finite form of the verbs given in brackets.
- I regret being (be) rude to you.
- I regret to inform (inform) you that you have not qualified in the interview.
- I want to stop now eating (eat) lunch.
- I must stop to eat (eat) so much.
- It was rude of him to have said (say) that.
Make a list of four things you remember doing as a young child.
- I remember reading fairy stories as a young child.
- I remember playing kabbadi.
- I remember going to school on foot.
- I remember eating raw guavas.
Now, make a list of things you must remember to do this coming week.
- I remember to study hard during examination days.
- I remember to donate some money to the orphanage.
- I remember to feast the street children on my next birthday.
- I remember to donate some clothes to the needy this Diwali.
Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 4 The Past Participle
Example : The wind swept away the fallen (leaves)
In this sentence ‘fallen’ describes ‘leaves’ which is a noun. Thus the past participle, like the present participle, acts an adjective.
Underline the past participle and circle the noun it qualifies in the following sentences :
See Workbook on Pages 71-72
Combine each of the following pairs of sentences, using the correct form of the verbs. The first one has been done for you as an example :
Nithin was irritated by the noise.
Nithin left the place.
Irritated by the noise, Nithin left the place.
Leander was surprised bv Asif’s return of service.
Leander started playing in earnest.
Surprised by Asif’s return of service, Leander started playing in earnest.
Rajani has completed her homework.
She wants to go to play.
Completing her homework Rajani wants to go to play.
Gopal was utterly bored with his studies.
He went out for a walk.
Utterly bored with his studies Gopal went out for a walk.
Sita was startled by the noise.
She jumped out other bed.
Startled by the noise Sita jumped out of her bed.
The police chased the smuggler. The smuggler hid in a thicket.
Chased by the police the smuggler hid in a thicket.
The news stunned Meenu. She stood rooted to the spot.
Stunned by the news Meenu stood rooted to the spot.
Match the news items with the headlines. Write the correct headline above each news item.
- → (d)
- → (b)
- → (a)
- → (c)
How do these words – appointed, relaxed and kidnapped – help in framing the headlines ?
All these words have been used as past participles to help in framing the above headlines.
Provide suitable headlines for the following news items. In your headlines, use the past participle form of appropriate verbs.
- Muster beaten in lyon grand prix
- Only experienced journalists for courts
- Man posing police officer held
- Nine roasted alive at bhangapara
Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 4 Non-Finites Summary
Look at the pictures. Describe each picture with an appropriate non-finite as shown. Try not to repeat the verbs.
Rewrite the following sentences making the necessary changes so that they convey the intended meaning :
- Having bitten the postman, the farmer decided to punish the dog.
- Being a rainy day, the organizers decided to postpone the match.
- Being fond of sweets, we planned to gift Mary a big box of chocolates on her birthday.
- Having finished his work for the day, the supervisor let him leave the factory early.
- Riding on a horse, the tiger jumped at him.
- Having been bitten by the dog, the postman decided to punish the farmer.
- It being a rainy day, the organizers decided to postpone the match.
- Mary being fond of sweets we planned to gift her a big box of chocolates on her birthday.
- The supervisor let him leave the factory early after his having finished his work for the day.
- While he was riding a horse, the tiger jumped at him.
Correct the following sentences :
- Her actions make my blood to boil.
- They are counting on me playing for their team.
- He is thinking to write his autobiography.
- I am hopeful to secure full marks in the Mathematics paper.
- We were prevented to enter the classroom.
- You had better to send your application by fax.
- Her actions make my blood boil.
- They are counting on my playing for their team.
- He is thinking of writing his autobiography.
- I am hopeful of securing full marks in the Mathematics paper.
- We were prevented from entering the classroom.
- 6. You had better send your application by fax.
A student has written a letter to Sagarika Sen asking for advice. Complete the letter using appropriate non-finites (- ing, – ed, and to + verb form)
Dear Sagarika Sen,
I am a Class XII student. My exams are a few months away and I need _________ all my time to my studies. But whenever I start _________ in the morning, a friend of mine who is in the same class comes to my house. He stays for about 30 minutes and keeps _________ all kinds of nonsense. I feel very _________ as it hampers my studies at the start of the day.
Please advise me how I can ensure that he never comes to my house while I am busy for my examination. How can I ask him _________ away without hurting him ? Som Shankar Lahir Calcutta (now Kolkata)
to devote, reading, talking, agitated/annoyed
preparing, to keep
Here is the advice that Sagarika Sen has given to Som Shankar. Complete the letter using non-finites:
Dear Som Shankar,
The easy way out would be _________ your servant to say that you are not at home, or that you have left strict instructions that you are not _________ at any cost. If you feel that your friend would be offended by this, then tell him that your parents do not approve of your _________ and _________ when you should be spending your time _________ Explain to him how you are getting (by your parents) because he wants _________ time with you.
But please make it clear that your parents do not disapprove of him. It’s just that at the moment, they would rather you spent your time _________. Once the exams are over, he would be welcome to your house any time. But, for now, he should stay away.
(Source : The Telegraph Weekend, 5/10/96)
asking, to be disturbed, meeting, talking, studying, rebuked, to pass, studying
Working in pairs, seek advice on some of the issues listed below. Your partner will give you the advice.
Advice to be given on ………
(You may think of more issues.)
Now write a letter to Sagarika Sen seeking her advice on any one of the issues you have discussed. Non-finites will make your writing more concise.
For working in pairs as desired. A specimen answer is given in the letter to Sagarika Sen, following it on one topic ie ‘worry about examination’.
B-5/A, Model Town
18th December, 20 _ _
I request you to advise me on the worry about the coming annual examination. Every day this worry is increasing due to parental pressure etc. I am getting confused and disillusioned. This has resulted in having a serious effect on my memory. The more I read, the more I get confused and frustrated. I tend to forget what I had read a few days ! before, as the worry about the annual examination is always with me. This has also resulted in creating a secret kind of fear in me. As a result, I fail to make friends. Many a time, I fail to concentrate on my lessons. It is not that I am very weak in my studies. But I don’t feel light in my work due to one reason or the other like the holiday homework, Keeping the important things in mind becomes somewhat difficult. You may call it the ‘examination terror’.
I would request you to help me fight this worry,