English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 6 Connectors
CBSE Class 10 English Workbook Solutions Unit 6 Connectors
A. What are Connectors ?
Connectors are words or phrases which join together the writer’s or the speaker’s thoughts and so make them flow more smoothly.
Read the paragraph given below and answer the questions that follow.
Atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy. It poses a threat to life and environment in case of natural disasters. Countries may decide to rely less on atomic energy in the future. Presently we cannot shut down nuclear power plants. We have not yet developed a viable alternative. Solar energy is safer. It is available in abundance, free of cost. Scientists have not yet come up with processes to harness solar energy for commercial use. The present scenario on the power front does not look very encouraging.
- Could you follow the meaning clearly ? Yes [ ] No [✓]
- Do you think the ideas and sentences are well connected ? Yes [ ] No [✓]
- What are the words and phrases you can insert to make the paragraph read better ?
Which, but, as, However, On the whole, But, As a matter of fact, etc.
Now read the paragraph again.
(Though) atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy, it poses a grave threat to life and environment in case of natural disasters. (Hence) countries may decide to rely less on atomic energy in the future. (However) presently we cannot shut down nuclear power plants (because) we have not yet developed a viable alternative. Solar energy is safer. (Moreover), it is available in abundance, free of cost. (But) scientists have not yet come up with processes to harness solar energy for commercial use. (On the words), the present scenario on the power front does not look very encouraging.
- Does the paragraph now read better ? Yes [✓] No [ ]
- What is the function that the highlighted words and phrases perform ?
These connect the senses and thoughts together to make these clear.
Such expressions are called ‘connectors’- ie, words or phrases which join together the writer’s or the speaker’s thoughts and so make them flow more smoothly. In this unit we shall practise various types of ‘connectors’ in English.
Read the sentences in Column A and identify the role (i.e. the “job”) of the underlined words. Then match each sentence with a role in Column B.
|(a) Food and drink prices in New York are verv high : furthermore, renting an apartment there is very expensive.||introduces the results|
|(b) Ragini has a great sense of humour. In the same way, her sister Taarini loves a good joke.||adds information|
|(c) The film had poor reviews. So, I went out with my friends to see a play instead.||introduces a similar idea|
|(d) Suiov is a lazv boy. Conseauentlv he failed in his exams.||gives a different/ opposite idea|
The underlined words or phrases are examples of connectors. They perform different roles of connecting ideas and sentences so that discourse becomes cohesive and coherent. Hence the connectors are also known as cohesive devices or discourse markers.
Each sentence is to be matched with a role as given below :
Complete the sentences given below using appropriate expressions given in the box.
1. The agenda for development should __________ encourage industrialization and preserve the environment and human rights.
2. My new job is very demanding, __________ I enjoy the challenge it offers to my creativity.
3. The team did not get discouraged by the early setback. __________ it started playing a more aggressive game.
4. I have managed to find a flat near my work spot and I will be moving in there by next week. __________, I met Prof. Anil Kapoor, our economics teacher at college, during the house hunting.
5. Many roadside restaurants cut cost by using cheap ingredients in their dishes. Take the cooking medium, __________. Instead of good quality refined oil, they mostly use palmoline which has high levels of saturated fatty acids.
6. The Sharmas decided to go to the USA to stay with their son. __________ they had to dispose of their flat at Jaipur.
7. The committee considers the quotation submitted by the firm rather unrealistic. __________, the firm will not be able to deliver the product in time as per the specifications stipulated.
8. Though the demand of the union appears to be reasonable, __________ that the company will not be able to accede to it in the present market conditions.
- on the one hand ; on the other hand
- On the contrary
- for instance
- I’m afraid/In other words
- I’m afraid
You have already seen in A2 the four roles of the connectors. Now match the following roles with the connectors that you have used to complete the sentences in A.3.
|1. Change of subject||(a) consequently|
|2. Making things clear||(b) I’m afraid|
|3. Stating the effect||(c) on the one hand / on the other hand|
|4. Softening the effect of some bad news.||(d) in other words|
|5. Balancing contrasting points||(e) nevertheless|
|6. Contradicting||(f) for instance|
|7. Emphasising a contrast||(g) incidentally|
|8. Giving examples||(h) on the contrary|
You might have found this exercise a little challenging. Hence the answers are given below which you can discuss in your class.
- — (g)
- — (d)
- — (a)
- — (b)
- — (c)
- — (h)
- — (e)
- — (f)
B. Adding information
You are already familiar with words like and, os well uo, and also to add information already given in a sentence. You will now learn to use more formal words to add information. These are furthermore, moreover, additionally, and in addition which are particularly useful in formal writing.
Complete the following sentences using furthermore, moreover, additionally, and in addition.
- Their team has got the best players. __________, their coach is fantastic.
- We had a terrible time on our holiday. The weather was hot; __________, the air was humid.
- Greens contain Vitamin A. __________, they are rich sources of iron.
- __________ to being a good student, Rahul works very hard to help his parents.
- He is ignorant; __________, he is lazy.
- That house isn’t big enough for us, and __________, it’s too expensive.
- In addition
- In addition
Write a second sentence in each pair, using the clues and a suitable connector.
- Harbhajan scored a half century in the first Quarter Finals of the World Cup Cricket Match against the West Indies, (five wickets)
- Rohini is a good singer, (dancer)
- Deforestation leads to drought, (global warming)
- Wildlife sanctuaries in India are home to elephants, tigers and rhinos, (preserve endangered species)
- Harbhajan scored a half century in the first Quarter Finals of the World Cup Cricket Match against the West Indies. Furthermore, he got five wickets.
- Rohini is a good singer. In addition, she is a good dancer.
- Deforestation leads to drought. Moreover, it leads to global warming.
- Wildlife sanctuaries in India are home to elephants, tigers and rhinos. Furthermore, these preserve endangered species.
Look again at the four sentences you have framed above. Do ‘moreover’, ‘furthermore’, ‘additionally’, and ‘in addition’ connect clauses or sentences ? Which position in the sentence do they generally occupy ?
These connectors connect sentences. These occupy an equal position in a sentence because they either give additional information or add to it. They also give a similar or opposite idea, or introduce the result.
C. Presenting a different idea
Study the pair of sentences given below :
Join the sentences using but, whereas and while
Chetna likes sports but Pranav likes reading.
The Students’ Council of your school has made a survey of two different classes : Class A and Class B. The survey was designed to find out what students like about the school and what they would like to change.
The students were asked the following questions
- What is your favourite school subject ?
- What is your favourite school club ?
- What other co-curricular activities would you like the school to organize ?
- What do you like best about the school ?
- What would you like to change about the school ?
They came up with the following answers.
|Class A||Class B|
|2. Chess Club||Music Club|
|3. A girls’ cricket club||A computer club|
|4. Caring teachers||Good library|
|5. Less Projects||More activities|
The paragraph below is a comparison of the views of the two classes. Complete the passage by filling in the blanks with but, whereas and while. More than-one option can be used in some blanks.
Class A agreed that Maths was their favourite subject _________ Class B liked History best. _________ the Chess Club was the favourite of Class A, B preferred the Music Club. As an additional co-curricular activity, Class A suggested the organising of a girls’ cricket team, _________ Class B wanted the establishment of a computer club. Regarding the most popular feature of the school, Class A liked the school’s caring teachers _________ Class B commended the good library. Finally, both wanted a change in the school’s attitude towards projects and activities. However, _________ Class A wanted less number of Projects for each term, Class B wanted the learning to happen through more hands-on activities.
You are familiar with the use of but, whereas and while to present a different, or unexpected, idea. We may also use however, nonetheless or nevertheless in formal writing.
Complete the following sentences using appropriate connectors.
- Kareena is rich ; __________, her cousin Karun is poor.
- Cotton farmers in Karnataka are facing serious problems. __________, the Government is not offering any help.
- Jatin wasn’t tired. __________, he took a nap.
- We live in the same building ; __________, we hardly ever see each other.
- She’s extremely rich ; __________, she’s not snobbish.
Work in pairs. Write a second sentence in each pair, using the clues and a suitable connector.
(a) He went on a diet, hoping to become slim and attractive, (malnutrition-inactive)
(b) The hotel did not offer the facilities we needed for our annual conference, (vacation)
(c) AIDS cannot be cured, (prevent)
(a) He went on a diet, hoping to become slim and attractive. Nevertheless he became inactive due to malnutrition.
(b) The hotel did not offer the facilities we needed for our annual conference. However, it provided a good vacation.
(c) AIDS cannot be cured but it can be prevented.
Think of things about yourself which surprise people.
Now write down three sentences like these about yourself. Share them with your partner.
Although I stammer a little, I deliver a very good speech.
I am a little lame but I win many races.
I look like a simpleton but I can’t be befooled.
Complete the following sentences using your own ideas.
- Although the day started quite well, __________.
- I voted for Ragini as the Head Girl but __________.
- Five witnesses say he stole the money yet __________.
- Even though he worked very hard __________.
- She had hurt her foot that morning. However, __________.
- it didn’t prove so good
- she lost the election
- he was acquitted
- he failed to get first division
- she took part in the race and won it
Despite and In spite of
Study the examples given below.
Study the jumbled words given below and form meaningful sentences.
- the/ he/ top/ despite/ ill/ being/ came/ of/ class.
- his/ in spite of7 he/ well/ copes/ disabilities
- smell/ in spite of/ its/ it/ tasted/ wonderful
- our/ voting/ despite/ Vijay/ for/ lost/ elections/ he/ as / Head Boy/ the
- Despite being ill, he came top of the class.
- In spite of his disabilities, he copes well.
- In spite of its smell, it tasted wonderful.
- Despite our voting for Vijay as the Head Boy, he lost elections.
E. Expressing a Similar Idea
similarly, in the same way
Select an appropriate connector from the box to complete the following sentences.
(a) In most cities, there are serious traffic jams in the morning rush-hour. __________ there is heavy traffic in the late afternoon.
(b) Cars must stop at a red traffic light. __________, pedestrians must only cross when the light is red.
(b) In the same way
Write a second sentence in each space below using the clues given and a suitable connector.
(a) Ramesh framed a timetable to prepare for board examination, (ask, his friend)
(b) Generally, people are afraid of snakes, (snakes-us)
(c) Suspecting every stranger you come across is wrong, (trusting, dangerous)
(d) Food hygiene is very important for our health, (clear air)
(a) Similarly, he asked his friend to do so.
(b) In the same way, snakes are also afraid of us.
(c) Similarly, trusting every stranger is dangerous.
(d) In the same way, clear air is equally important for it.
F. Time connectors
Read the story below. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate connector of time
It was late at night. Ashok had been sleeping for several hours (1) __________ he was woken by a furious knocking at the door. (2) __________ checking his watch and putting on his dressing gown, he staggered sleepily towards the door. (3) __________ he looked through the keyhole he saw a very strange sight: it was the big, bearded watchman of the flats shivering in a woman’s dressing gown ! (4) __________ he saw this, Ashok rushed back to his bedroom and, (5) __________ in bed, pulled the covers over his head shaking with shock. (6) __________ he lay there he could hear desperate shouting and banging but Ashok ignored it and (7) __________ fell asleep.
The following morning, Ashok meets the watchman who gives him an explanation for his strange behaviour the previous night.
Look at the notes below and explain the story. Remember to use suitable tenses and connectors of time to explain the sequence of events. The first few lines have been written for you.
- watchman in bed-trying to get to sleep
- hears window banging outside
- goes outside flat
- wind blows door shut
- watchman locked out, knocks on Ashok’s door
- sleeps on stairs
- gets locksmith in the morning
“As I .was lying in bed, trying to get to sleep, I heard a window banging outside. Before leaving, I put on my wife’s dressing gown because it was the only thing I could find. While I was trying to close the window …
… to avoid its banging, the wind blew the door shut. So I was locked out in that horrible night. Although I tried to open the door, yet I couldn’t open it. It had been locked in that bang. As I was shivering in that cold, an idea struck my mind.
Immediately, I came to your house and knocked at the door. Despite my knocking several times you didn’t open it. Finally, I had to sleep on the stairs. When it was morning, I brought the locksmith to open the door. After the locksmith keyed to the lock, I entered the house.
G. Purpose connectors
G. 1. In pairs, answer the following questions (Try to be imaginative !).
- Why do we go to school ?
- Why do we have laws ?
- Why do children play games ?
Your teacher will put your answers on the board.
- We go to school to study and learn good manners.
- We have laws so that we may not become savages.
- Children play games to get pleasure.
What are these for ?
Ravi has made some changes to his bicycle.
His friend is asking about the purpose of the changes.
Match the questions from A with the answers in B and write in the space given below. The first one has been done as an example.
What are they up to ?
Discuss with your partner what the purpose of each action is. Write it in the space provided.
To be discussed as desired. Hints to solutions are given in each case :
(а) The person has some urgent work ; also he is to take his wife to hospital, so he is rushing.
(b) The person is relaxing under the tree to protect himself from heat.
(c) The girl is looking at the clock because her recess begins at 11.30 am.
(d) The boy is on the phone for more than ten minutes, because he is enjoying some joke.
Guess what it’s used for
Use your imagination and draw a familiar object but with some interesting changes to it (some ideas are given below). After drawing it, show your drawing to your partner, who has to guess what the changes are for, using the connectors of purpose form G.2.
For self-attempt. One sample answer is given below.
1. I think that wirenet on the roof of the car is for carrying luggage.
No, it isn’t.
Well, is it used to receive broadcasting signals ?
No, it is used to receive satellite signals.
2. I think the TV screen on the dash board of the car is for viewing TV programmes. No, it isn’t.
Well, is it used for computer programming ?
No, it is to indicate whether the car is running on the right path.
3. I think the extra ‘lights’ are for illuminating the interior of the car.
No, these aren’t.
Well, are these for focusing lights for reading ?
No, these are air purifiers used for purifying the air inside the car.
4. I think the rods on both the sides of the car are to give it an aesthetic appeal.
No, these aren’t.
Well, are these for balancing its body ?
No, these are there to balance the car in case it tilts sideways due to potholes.
Your elder sister is preparing for a very important job interview for which she is carrying the following items in a large carry bag.
In pairs, role play the conversation between you and your sister using “purpose” expressions. Then write your dialogue in the space provided.
You may wish to follow this pattern in the dialogue.
You : Smitha, you seem very nervous about the interview.
Smitha : You’re right, But I really want this job, So I’m really prepared.
You : Yes. You certainly are ! But why are you carrying an umbrella ? It’s the middle of the dry season.
Smitha : So as to look businesslike.
You : And why are you taking so much money ?
For role-play at class level. A sample is given below in continuation of the dialogue given above.
Smitha : In case I may have to hire taxis after taxis.
You : Yes, you are getting extra careful. But why are you carrying a bus timetable as well ? There are plenty of buses going that way.
Smitha : I am carrying the bus timetable so that J may not forget the route no. and the bus no.
You : But I see a train timetable in your large bag. What does it all mean?
Smitha : In case the buses don’t come, or there may be a breakdown all of a sudden.
You : Yes, I see. But I don’t understand why you are carrying a map of the area?
Smitha : This is with me in order to guide me where I have to go.
You : Fine. You are definitely going to be selected for the job! But what for are you carrying this sticky tape?
Smitha : Oh ! it is to hold together my sandals in case the strap breaks free.
You : Yes. It is a good preparation. I mean, why are you carrying several saree pins ? One saree pin you are wearing is sufficient.
Smitha : You don’t understand. It is to influence the chairperson.
You : You arc also having sunglasses. What are you going to do with them when it is cloudy.
Try Your self
so ……… that
too ……… to + verb
not ……… enough to + verb
Compare the following sentences.
She is so weak that she cannot walk.
She is too weak to walk.
She is not strong enough to walk.
Write a sentence on each of the prompts given below using any of the examples from the box.
- intelligent – pass
- weak – stand up
- hot – go for a walk
- fertile – grow rice
- small – accommodate
- Manmohan is not intelligent enough to pass.
- My grandmother is so weak that she cannot stand up.
- It is too hot for us to go for a walk.
- This piece of land is not fertile enough to grow rice.
- This room is too small to accommodate us all.
Look at the table and write three sentences in the space below, using so …. that
- They were so tired that they couldn’t perform well in the programme.
- They were so tired that they could not go for a walk.
- They were so sick that they did badly in their exams.
Complete the following sentences, using so that correctly.
- Yadu is so handsome _________.
- _________ that he put his boots on the wrong feet.
- The audience were so emotionally involved in the programme that _________
- The crowd were _________
- that any girl can marry him
- He was so confused
- they started weeping when the heroine died
- so agitated that all in it started throwing stones at the police
I. Whoever, whatever, wherever, whenever, however, whichever : These ‘wh + ever” constructions also can be used to connect clauses. Complete the following sentences using an appropriate, ‘wh + ever’ construction.
- _________ has broken the window, one of us will have to pay for it.
- _________ quickly I dry my hair after washing it, I catch a cold.
- Take this statuette, talisman or _________ it is, and put it _________ you can find room for it.
- _________ told you to keep off chocolates was quite right ; you’re much slimmer now. You should go on doing _________ he tells you to.
- If any of your students disturbs me again, I shall report it to the principal, _________ they may be. Your class makes a lot of noise _________ there is a test in the next class.
- Take _________ one you want! If you change your mind, bring it back _________ you like ! This is our special New Year offer !
- whatever ; wherever
- Whoever ; whatever
- whoever ; whenever
- whichever ; whenever