English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison

CBSE Class 10 English Workbook Solutions Unit 8 Comparison

A. Introduction

A.1.
When we compare we estimate, measure or note the similarity or dissimilarity between two or more people, places, things or ideas. And we often compare them in terms of size, shape, weight, colour, quality, manner, number, quantity, grade, actions, intensity, age, looks, feelings etc.

Do you know what term is used for the class of words we use for comparison ?

In this unit you will learn the various ways of comparing in English. You will also get some practice in using them.

See Workbook on Pages 131-132

Note: The focus above is on the grammar concept of ‘Comparatives’, well-supported by its elaborate clarification.

A. 2.
Study the table below and notice how the words of comparison are used.
See Workbook on Page 133
Have you noticed that the above examples have expressions like as … as, more … than, -er… than, the … -est or the most…. ? Why ? Discuss with a partner. The examples in the following table can give you some clues to the answer.
See Workbook on Page 134

Write your conclusions here :

Adjective Comparative form Superlative form
Single syllable adjectives -er for adjectives / adverbs -est for adjectives/ adverbs
Adjectives of two syllables -r / er st / est
Adjectives ending in ‘y’ -ier -iest
Adjectives of more than two syllables more … than the most
Adjectives that do not have regular forms irregular comparative irregular superlative

Now write six comparative sentences. Use the information in Table A.1 that you worked out with your partner.

Example : My partner is taller than me.
His family isn’t as rich as mine.

Answers:

  1. My complexion is fairer than hers.
  2. He is as energetic as I.
  3. The period of his service is less than that of mine.
  4. His passion for basketball is not as intense as mine.
  5. He walks faster than me.
  6. His academic score is higher than that of mine.

A. 3.
Work with your partner and fill in the table with information about yourselves.
You may add other characteristics, if you like. When you have finished, compare the results.

Characteristics You (Write your name here : Judith) Your partner (Write his / her name here : Hamnet)
• Height 1.6 m 1.7 m
• Weight 56 kg 62 kg
• Age (years and months) 15-3 15-6
• Hair dark brown
• Number of members in the family three four
• Distance of home from school 4 km 8 km
• Mode of transport to school school bus car
• Interest in studies deep less

A.4.
Read this feature article in which the writer compares the treatment of boys and girls. Complete the article by filling in the spaces with ONE appropriate word from the box given below. You may have to change the form of the word you need to use and some words may have to be used more than once.

than,much,few,less,as,many

For many parents, especially those who are poor and illiterate, a girl is a ‘lesser child’. Doesn’t it make you mad to know that girls aren’t given an equal chance to be born ? Though female infanticide was banned by law over a century ago, thousands of girls are killed before they are born or when they are babies.

Even the girls who are allowed to survive live with less of everything. ________ girls are sent to school ________ boys. They get ________ medical care, so ________ girls die. Boys get ________ nutritious food and also ________ time to play. ________ jobs are open to girls, and even if they are employed, they are not paid ________ as boys. Most of all, they get ________ respect. They are not given as ________ opportunities as boys to speak out on matters that concern them. And yet a girl usually does twice as ________ work ________ a boy, not only in the house but also in the fields.

This discrimination and bias must end, and end now ! Can we count on your support ?
Answer:
Fewer, than, less, many, more
much, Fewer, as much, less, many
much, as

A.5.
Work with your partner and list the names of magazines that you know.

Name of Magazine
Femina Resonance
Frontline Inside Outside
India Today Outlook

Now make as many sentences as you can from the table below to express your own opinions about the magazines you have listed. Write your sentences in your note book.

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 1

Note: You may add more information if you like
When do we use (a) less than/ as much as and → In uncountable nouns
When do we use (b) fewer than/ as many as ? → In countable nouns
Create some sentences, and try to work out the “rule”.
Answer:
My Opinions on different Magazines

  1. I think Outlook contains fewer interviews than Frontline.
  2. I do not think Resonance contains as many advertisements as Femina.
  3. India Today is more popular than Resonance.
  4. The visuals in ‘Inside Outside’ are more appealing than those in India Today.

Some Sentences:

(a)

  • The reward is less than what you expected.
  • He ate as much as he could.

Rule. less than/as much as ; is used with uncountable nouns, eg reward, ate.

(b)

  • The girls are fewer than the boys.
  • The visuals are not as many as you expect.

Rule. fewer than/as many as ; is used in countable nouns, eg girls, visuals.

A.6.
Compare the two rockets shown below and complete the paragraph which follows.

Helios Selene
Height 20 metres 25 metres
Weight 15 tonnes 18 tonnes
Diameter 1 metre 1 metre
Date of first launch 1993 1991
Payload capacity 1 tonne 1.1 tonne
Range 3000 kms 2300 kms

The Selene, first launched in 1991, is five metres _________ (height) and three tonnes _________ (weight) _________ the Helios. The diameter of the Helios is _________ the Selene. However, the payload capacity of the Helios is 1 tonne, which is 0.1 tonne _________ the Selene. Interestingly, the Helios has a range of 3000 km, which is 700 km _________ the Selene.
Answers:
higher, weightier, than, as much as, less than that of, more than that of

A.7.
The chart below shows information on the economics of the Annual Sports Meet. Study the chart carefully.

See Workbook on Pages 138-139

Suppose you are the Principal of the school. Taking information from the chart, prepare an oral presentation for the Management Committee of the school. Use as many expressions of comparison as you can. You have been given some examples.

More girls will participate than boys.
Twice as much money will be spent on procuring sports equipment and apparatus as on tents, chairs and decoration.
As much as a quarter of all money has been ear-marked for organising a cultural extravaganza in the opening and closing ceremonies.
Answer:
The Economics of the Annual Sports Meet

Oral Presentation

This is to apprise the honourable members of the Management Committee that as much as a quarter of the total money has been earmarked for organising the Cultural Extravaganza. Fortunately, the participation of the girls will be more than that of the boys. The expenses on procuring sports equipment and tentage will be twice as much as was previously estimated. Even the number of mementoes, trophies and certificates will be about three times more than that of the last year’s sum-total. As far as the budget for refreshments is concerned, it is going to be far more than what was planned. However, the financial support from different sources is as encouraging as it was the last year.

A.8.
Compare the items in each picture using -er, more, less or an irregular form. Use the words under the pictures. You may write your answer in more than I one way.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 2
Example : Ice-cream tastes better than yoghurt,
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 3
healthy, nutritious, fattening
Answer:
• Fresh fruits are healthier, more nutritious and less fattening than burgers.
• Burgers are less healthy, nutritious and fattening than fresh fruits.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 4
cheap, effective, good
Answer:
• The soap cake is cheaper, more effective and better than clinic shampoo.
• Clinic shampoo is less cheap, effective and good than the soap cake.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 5
economical, safer, eco-friendly
Answer:
• Cycling is safer, more economical and more eco-friendly than riding a motor-bike.
• Riding a motor-bike is less economical, safe and eco-friendly than cycling.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 6
good, quick, safe
Answer:
• Sending e-mail is better, quicker and safer that that by ordinary post.
• Ordinary post is less good, quick and safe than that by e-mail.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 7
informative, entertaining, popular
Answer:
• T.V. is more informative, entertaining and popular than transistor.
• Transistor is far less informative, entertaining and popular than T.V.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 8
convenient, spacious, private
Answer:
• A detached house is more convenient, spacious and private than a flat or an apartment.
• A flat or an apartment is less convenient, spacious and private than a detached house.
useful, easy, handy, versatile
Answer:
• A Swiss knife is more useful, easier! handier and more versatile than a tin-can opener.
• A tin-can opener is less useful, easy/handy and versatile than a Swiss knife.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 10
crowded, polluted, noisy
Answer:
• Life in cities is far more crowded, polluted and noisy than that in villages.
• Life in villages is far less crowded, polluted and noisy than that in cities.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 11
fast, expensive, comfortable
Answer:
• Travel in an aeroplane is faster, more expensive and more comfortable than that in a train.
• Travel in a train is less fast, expensive and comfortable than that in an aeroplane.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 12
quick, hygienic, nutritious
Answer:
• Food cooked in a pressure cooker is quicker, more hygienic and nutritious than that cooked in an ordinary cooking vessel.
• Food cooked in an ordinary cooking vessel is less quick, hygienic and nutritious than that cooked in a pressure cooker.
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 13
safe, comfortable, fast
Answer:
• Travel in a train is safer, more comfortable and faster than that of a bus.
• Travel in a bus is less safe, comfortable and fast than that in a train.

A.9.
Complete the following paragraph by filling in the blanks with the comparative form of words given in the box below :
expensive,cheap, good,costly,low
Answer:
Goods this year are costlier than last year, and next year things may be more expensive than they are now.

Here are some suggestions for saving money ! Compare the prices of similar products. Some brands are cheaper than others, but the quality may not be much lower.

Before you go shopping make a list of the items that you need and buy only those things ! Don’t buy things that you don’t need just because they are cheaper than the usual price, and don’t buy anything just to ‘keep up’ with your neighbours.

B. Avoiding Repetition

B.1.
The comparisons below involve some unnecessary repetition. Cross out any unnecessary words, to avoid repetition.

I can run faster than Asha can run.
I can run faster than Asha can.
I can run faster than Asha.

  1. Today, Asia has far less forest cover than Asia had in the past.
  2. The questions in the Physics test weren’t as easy as the questions in the Maths test.
  3. The population of India is rising more quickly than the population of China.
  4. Children were reading more in 1990 than they are reading now.
  5. Children now spend far more time watching TV than they spend reading books.

Answers:

  1. Nowadays, Asia has far fewer forests than it (once) had.
  2. The questions in the Physics test weren’t as easy as those in the Maths test.
  3. The population of India is rising more quickly than that of China.
  4. Children were reading more in 1990 than they are now.
  5. Children now spend far more time watching TV than reading books.

B.2.
Rewrite the following passage by removing the words that have been repeated. Use that or those, wherever necessary. You may have to make certain other changes, too.

Apes are in many ways similar to humans. The skeleton of an ape resembles the skeleton of a human and it has the same number of teeth as a human has. An ape’s brain is smaller than the brain of a human, but its structure is the same as the structure of a human brain. It is not surprising then, that apes behave rather like humans behave.

Of all apes, the chimpanzee is most similar to man. It is the most intelligent of all the apes and can be trained more easily than other apes. Some chimpanzees have been taught to communicate with humans through gestures like the gestures used in deaf and dumb language.
Answer:
Apes are in many ways similar to humans. The skeleton of an ape resembles that of a human and it has the same number of teeth as the latter has. An ape’s brain is smaller than that of a human, but its structure is the same as that of the latter. It is not surprising then, that apes behave rather like humans behave.

Of all apes, the chimpanzee is most similar to man. It is the most intelligent of all the apes and can be trained more easily than other apes. Some chimpanzees have been taught to communicate with humans through gestures like those used in deaf and dumb language.

B.3.
What does this proverb mean ?
The higher you climb, the harder you fall.
Match the clauses from column A with those in column B to form meaningful sentences.

A B
1.  The longer a candle burns,

2.  The lower the sun is,

3.  The faster a guitar string vibrates,

4.  The smoother an object is,

5.  The higher we climb,

(a)   the shorter it becomes.

(b)   the higher it sounds.

(c)    the less oxygen there is.

(d) the redder it appears.

(e) the less friction it creates.

Answer:
(a) The interpretation of the proverb is : The more dreamy you are, the more sad you will be.
(b) The clauses in the column A match with the following phrases in column B.

A B
1.  The longer a candle burns,

2.   The lower the sun is,

3.   The faster a guitar string vibrates,

4.   The smoother an object is,

5.   The higher we climb,

(a) the shorter it becomes.

(d) the redder it appears.

(b) the higher it sounds.

(e) the less friction it creates.

(c) the less oxygen there is.

B.4.
Now complete the sentences below

1. The harder I work
— the stronger I feel.

2. The older you become
— the weaker you feel.

3. The more he earns
— the fatter he becomes.

4. The sooner she realizes her mistake
— the wiser she emerges.

5. The faster our team scores
— the luckier we feel.

C. Comparison of Trends

C. 1.
Look at the graph and the paragraph below which provides an interpretation of the data given in the graph.
Graph to show number of whales caught in Antarctic (1985-2010)
English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 14
As whalers reduced catches of the larger whales, they switched to smaller species. This is evident when we compare figures for the Antarctic catch of the larger sei whale with those for small minke whale. In 1985, fifteen times as many sei whales as minke whales were caught. By 1995, catches of both the species were virtually the same (9000). By the 2000, the situation had reversed and the number of minke whales killed was more than doubled as compared to sei whales (6000). The graph shows that while the sei catch was reduced by 95% between 1985 and 2010, over the same period the minke whale catch was eight times greater. If these trends continue, the situation for the smaller species will be as bad as it used to be for the larger ones.

Discuss with a partner :

  1. What expressions have been used for comparing the data ? Underline them.
  2. Does the analysis identify the main trends ? Has any projection or guess been made based on the available data ?
  3. Can you spot a sentence that summarizes the data or draws a conclusion based on it ?
  4. Has the analysis been supported with figures from the given data ?
  5. Is there any unnecessary repetition ?
  6. How many times has the verb ‘be’ in its different forms been used ?

See Workbook on Page 147

Answer:
After the discussion with the partner, the results are given below :
1. The expressions for comparing the data have been underlined :

As whalers reduced catches of the larger whales, they switched to smaller species. This is evident when we compare figures for the Antarctic catch of the larger sei whale with those for small minke whale. In 1985, fifteen times as many sei whales as minke whales were caught. By 1995, catches of both the species were virtually the same (9000). By the 2000, the situation had reversed and the number of minke whales killed was more than doubled as compared to sei whales (6000). The graph shows that while the sei catch was reduced by 95% between 1985 and 2010, over the same period the minke whale catch was eight times greater. If these trends continue, the situation for the smaller species will be as bad as it used to be for the larger ones.

2. The main trends refer to the comparison of the trends in the two activities.
3. The conclusion emphasizes that if these trends continue, the situation for the smaller species will be as bad as it used to be for the larger ones.
4. The analysis is supported with the comparison of the situation between the years 1985 and 2010.
5. Not exactly ; there is hardly any repetition.
6. The use of verb ‘be’ in its different forms has been identified ie, they figure six times in the given passage which are given as under :

  1. is evident
  2. were caught
  3. were virtually
  4. had reversed
  5. was reduced
  6. was 8 times greater

C.2.
The graph below describes the average number of hours spent by students aged 11-15 years on two activities (per student per week) in India between 1985 and 2010 and gives projections for 2015. Study the information carefully and then write a paragraph interpreting the data. Include the following:

  • A comparison of the trends in the two activities
  • A comparison of the situation in 1985
  • A comparison of the situation between 1985 and 2010
  • Predictions for the future

English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Comparison 15

Answer:
It can be seen from the graph that on the whole, time spent by the students on viewing TV between 1985 and 2010 has been increasing ; and on reading for pleasure, it has been decreasing. For instance in the year 1985, students spent hardly any time per week on watching TV as against fourteen hours spent by them on reading for pleasure. In the year 2010, they spent only three-fourth as much time reading as they did in 1985. If the present trends continue, the students by the year 2015 would be spending their time on viewing TV, a little more. It would be almost four times higher than on reading for pleasure.

D. Proportion

See the Workbook on Page 149

Look at the pie chart and the useful expressions above. Fill in the gaps in the following summary of results.

As can be seen from the above pie-chart, nearly a __________ of the teachers felt that Class X students must not be allowed to use mobile phones in the school campus. However, nearly one __________ believed the phones should be permitted but not during class hours. About __________ were of the opinion that the students may be allowed to use these phones only in times of emergency while a very __________ did not favour any restrictions on their use in the campus.
Answer:
half, quarter
one third, small number

D.2.
A school carried out two surveys in Class X. Look at the pie charts below and write short summaries of the results as in the model above.
See the Workbook on Page 150
Answer:
As can be seen from the above pie chart, nearly a quarter of the class thought. TV advertising should be banned completely. Just under a quarter thought advertisements should be on TV only after 9 pm. About another quarter felt that advertising of only certain products like alcohol should be banned. A small minority, however, thought that there should be no restrictions. Slightly less than a quarter thought that advertising should be censored.

See the Workbook on Page 151

Answer:
As we can see from the above chart, slightly less than half believed that young people should be considered independent when they reach the age of eighteen. Almost a quarter felt, they should attain the independent stature only when they are twenty one. A small minority, however, thought that independence is spontaneous when one gets a job. A few felt that age was not the criteria to become independent.

E. Superlatives

E.1.
Study the following sentences

Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa.
The Pacific is the deepest of all the oceans in the world.
The Nile is the longest river in the world.

Now make similar sentences about the following. Use your general knowledge and imagination.

  1. Diamonds are the hardest substances known to man.
  2. The Himalayas are the longest mountain ranges.
  3. The Ganga is the holiest river in India.
  4. Leh is the coldest desert.
  5. The Taj Mahal is the most beautiful monument in India.
  6. Kolkata is the largest city of the country.
  7. Jupiter is the largest of all the planets.
  8. The elephant is the heaviest land mammal.
  9. Mt. Everest is the tallest I highest mountain peak.
  10. Russia is the oldest socialist country.

E.2.
Which of the following do you like best ? Write one or two sentences comparing your choice as shown in the example.

Comics, short stories, novels
I like comics best because they have the most colourful pictures. They are also the funniest.
I like short stories best because they don’t take much time to read.
I like novels best because they make the most interesting reading.

1. Cricket, football, hockey
I like cricket best because it is easier to play than football and hockey. It is also the most interesting.

2. Fruit, chocolate, ice-cream
I like fruit best because it is more nutritious than chocolate and ice-cream. It is also the freshest.

3. Theatre, TV, Cinema
I like TV the most because it provides more comfort than theatre and cinema. Also, it suits me the most in terms of time.

4. Cartoon films, Sci-fi (Science Fiction) films, comedy films
I like comedy films best because they are lighter in taste than cartoon films and Sci-fi (Science Fiction) films. They are also the most laughable.

5. (Think of three items of your own)
(i) Teaching, journalism, farming :
I like teaching best because it is easier than journalism and farming. It is also the most interesting.

(ii) Sailing, skiing, canoeing :
I like skiing best because it is more adventurous than sailing and canoeing. It is also the most interesting.

(iii) Reading, singing, playing :
I like reading best because it is more exciting than playing and sleeping. It is also the most refreshing.

F. Error Correction

Each sentence below contains an error. Identify and remove the error and rewrite the sentence correctly. You have been given one example.

The population of China is greater than India.
The population of China is greater than that of India.
(Explanation : China’s population is not greater than India, but India’s population)

Question 1.
Saeed runs quicker than Johnson.
Answer:
Saeed runs more quickly than Johnson.

Question 2.
The faster land animal in the world is the cheetah.
Answer:
No other land animal in the world is faster than the cheetah.

Question 3.
Our house is bigger than your.
Answer:
Our house is bigger than yours.

Question 4.
On an average, people in cities earn more money than that living in villages.
Answer:
On an average, people in cities earn more money than those in villages.

Question 5.
His grade is the same than mine.
Answer:
His grade is the same as (that of) mine.

Question 6.
Ranvir is slightly taller as Javed.
Answer:
Ranvir is slightly taller than Javed.

Question 7.
Developed countries consume twice more resources as developing countries.
Answer:
Developed countries consume twice as much resources as developing countries.

Question 8.
The clock tower is most prominent landmark in this area.
Answer:
The clock tower is the most prominent landmark in this area.

The Complete Educational Website

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *