English Workbook Class 10 Solutions Unit 9 Avoiding Repetition
CBSE Class 10 English Workbook Solutions Unit 9 Avoiding Repetition
A. Notice the element of repetition in the following sentences and decide whether it is acceptable or not. Give reasons in support of your opinion.
1. Democracy is the government of the people, by the people, for the people.
Through the repetition, the speaker has emphasized the importance of the people.
2. “I want to scale Mt. Everest, I want to do scuba diving and I want to fly an aeroplane. Actually, I want to do a lot of things before I die.”
— Not Acceptable
The repetition ofT reveals the author’s self-confidence. However, the sentence could be rewritten avoiding unnecessary repetition of‘want to …’and ‘and’.
3. New Delhi has many big, big malls.
The repetition of big shows the speaker’s sense of wonder and emphasis.
4. In this article first I have tried to discuss the various causes of air-pollution. Then I have tried to discuss the various effects of air-pollution and finally I have tried to discuss various ways to reduce the amount of air-pollution.
— Not acceptable
The repetition of‘I have tried’ is annoying. He should have used it only once. It would have conveyed the same meaning. Secondly, the repetition of air-pollution makes the sentence monotonous. The sentence would have looked good if it had been restructured using various pronouns.
5. “I’ve failed.”
“You’ve failed ? I can’t believe this !”
The repetition of‘ve failed’ shows the speaker’s sense of amazement.
6. The incident took place today at around 6 a.m. in the morning.
— Not acceptable
The word ‘a.m.’ is enough. After that ‘in the morning’ is unnecessary.
7. Could you repeat that again, please ?
— Not acceptable
The word repeat means ‘again’. To use the word ‘again’ is annoying as its idea is there in ‘repeat’.
8. I am very, very sorry.
The repetition of‘very’ enhances the effect.
9. I have planned a plan.
— Not acceptable
The repetition of plan is ridiculous. The verb ‘planned’ means it.
10. When I heard that she was staying at the Hotel Park View, I decided to go to the Hotel Park View to meet her there.
— Not acceptable
It is a waste of breath to use ‘the Hotel Park View’ again. The speaker can easily use the word ‘there’ when he uses it the second time.
B. Read the following passages that describe a Herbal Doctor Mr Ved Prakash Goel.
(a) How many words have been used in each paragraph ?
See the Workbook on Page 164
(b) Circle the words or phrases in paragraph B that replace words or phrases in paragraph A. Then join the corresponding circles with a line as shown in the example.
See the paragraph A and B
(c) Which of the two paragraphs makes better reading ? Why ? (Discuss in pairs and write your answer below)
Paragraph B makes better reading. To hear or read the same words repeatedly annoys a hearer or a reader. It is always good to use pronouns or some other words in their place, if they can convey the same meanings. In paragraph ‘B’ the author has done it and so it makes a better reading.
C. Read the passage below. Underline the words that have been used to avoid repetition. Mark the words that have not been replaced or deleted with ‘?’.
Sec the Workbook on Page 165
Note : The words that have not been replaced or deleted are in circles.
It was yet another escapade of Gopi and Gargi into the forest. The two were playing in the courtyard of the ruined castle when they heard strange sounds, as if someone was ringing tiny bells in a temple. But there was none in the vicinity. They knew it. Then who was making those sounds ? Nothing of that sort had happened during any of their earlier visits. Was the castle haunted ?
[Were there any ghosts in it?] Suddenly, this thought had a vice like grip on their minds.
Naturally enough, both were terrified but neither wanted to admit it. Presently the sounds became louder and louder and the duo would have fled had Gargi’s sharp eyes not caught a glimpse of a herd of goats grazing behind the thickets nearby. ‘So, those are the ghosts!’ said Gargi and both burst into laughter. They rushed to the spot to have a closer look and found that there were thirteen goats in all and each had a tiny brass bell dangling from its neck. Four (goats) were black and the rest were brown.
“Were there any ghosts in it ?” should be deleted; ‘goats’ should be replaced by ‘of them’.
D. Read Passage 1 below and then fill in the blanks in Passage 2 with one word each. You may choose words from the ones you underlined in the exercise C. Which makes a better reading-Passage 1 or Passage 2 ? Why ?
Moina and Debi are students of class IX. Moina and Debi are great friends although Moina and Debi don’t study at the same school. Moina has never played cricket and Debi has never played cricket too but Moina and Debi are crazy about cricket. So far Moina and Debi have together watched ten international matches played by their country, India. Four of these matches were played in different foreign countries and six of these matches were played in their country, India. Surprisingly, India has lost no match where Moina and Debi were present in the stands. Moina claims that she is more passionate about the game of cricket than Debi. Debi says she is more passionate about the game than Moina.
Moina and Debi are students of class IX ……………… are great friends although they don’t study at the same school has ……………… ever played any cricket but ……………… are crazy about ……………… especially one day matches. So far the ……………… have watched 10 matches together, all involving India. Surprisingly, India has lost ……………… of them. Four of these matches were played in different foreign countries and the ……………… in India ……………… girl claims that she is more passionate about the game than the other.
They, Neither, they, it, two none, rest, Each
E. Ratna and Rajshree are two sisters. Ratna teaches English in a college and her sister Rajshree works in a bank. Rajshree is younger than Ratna. Ratna and Rajshree wear their hair long. Ratna likes eating ice-cream while Rajshree likes eating pastries. Ratna is not interested in sports. Rajshree is also not interested in sports. Rajshree is married to Utlam. Utlam is an engineer. Ratna is married to Sujit. Sujit is a businessman. Ratna has a daughter and a son. Rajshree has a daughter and a son too.
Rewrite the passage above such that there is no unnecessary repetition in it.
Ratna and Rajshree are two sisters. Ratna teaches English in a college and her sister Rajshree works in a hank. Rajshree is younger than Ratna. Both wear their hair long. Ratna likes eating ice-cream while Rajshree likes pastries. Neither is interested in sports. Rajshree is married to Utlam. He is an engineer. Ratna is married to Sujit. He is a businessman. Each has a daughter and a son.
F. What do you think of repetition in the following passage ? Do you think all of it is had ? Can you improve the passage by removing instances of unnecessary repetition ?
1. Chores ! Chores! Chores ! Chores are boring ! Scrubbing toilets, cleaning sinks, and washing bathtubs take up a lot of my time and are not fun at all.
2. Toilets ! When you’re scrubbing toilets, make sure they are not stinky. I’ve scrubbed one before and I was lucky it didn’t stink. I think toilets are one of the hardest things to scrub in the bathroom because it is hard to get up around the rim.
3. Sinks are one of the easiest things to clean in the bathroom because they have no rims and they are small. I have cleaned one before and it was pretty easy.
4. Bathtubs, ever washed one ? They are big, they are deep, and it is hard to get up around the sides. The bathtub is the hardest, I think, to wash in the bathroom.
5. All chores are boring, especially making my bed. Cleaning my room is OK because I have to organize, and I like organizing. Dusting is the worst: dust, set down, pick up, dust, set down.
6. There are so many things to dust, and it’s no fun.
Chores aren’t the worst but they’re definitely not the best!
Source : Teaching that Makes Sense
All of it is certainly not bad. However, ‘chores’ has been repeated four times in the first sentence. The 4th ‘chores’ can be replaced by ‘They’. Last phrases in the 4th and 5th paragraph can be removed—‘in the bathroom’ and ‘dust, set down’.
We can rewrite using pronouns at appropriate places where repetition occurs.
We often use pronouns to make links between sentences and to avoid repetition.
Read the following extract from the story The Two Gentlemen of Verona.
“Of course, everything is so difficult now, food so scarce and dear, we could not keep going unless we charged a fee. But every week, Lucia’s brothers have made their payment.” She added simply, “I do not know what they do, I do not ask. Work is scarce in Verona. But whatever it is, I know they do it well.”
Work with your partner and answer these questions.
1. In the first line ‘everything’ refers to ?
— In the first line ‘everything’ refers to ‘the things that are to be bought’.
2. The phrase ‘their payment’ (line 3) refers to ?
— The phrase ‘their payment’ refers to ‘the payment due to Lucia’s brothers.’
3. ‘They’ in the third line refers to ?
— ‘They’ refers to ‘Lucia’s brothers.
4. The speaker says, ‘I do not ask’. What does the speaker not ask ? Whom ?
— The speaker does not ask Lucia’s brothers what they do to earn the money.
5. ‘Whatever it is.’ (line 4) Here ‘it’ refers to ?
— ‘It’ refers to the work Lucia’s brothers do.
6. Who do the pronouns T and ‘She’ refer to ?
— Both T and ‘She’ refer to the speaker.
Substitution in formal writing
Look at this piece of formal writing
The Deputy Commissioner and the Commissioner of Police were the Chief Guest and the Guest of Honour respectively. The former delivered the key note address and the latter gave away the prizes to the winners.
Complete the following table using information from the text above.
The Deputy Commissioner = the Chief Guest
The Commissioner of Police = Guest of Honour
The former = The Deputy Commissioner
The latter = The Commissioner of Police
Study the use of the words underlined in the text.
(a) Why are they used ?
— They are used to avoid repetition.
(b) Why do you think they are not commonly used in spoken English ?
— They are not commonly used in spoken English for the sake of clarity. They cause unnecessary strain on the listener’s mind. The reader can go back to the previous sentence but not the hearer.
Rewrite the following texts. Use the former, the latter, and respectively to avoid repetition.
1. Anand likes History and Joel likes Mathematics. It is interesting to note that Anand is the son of a Mathematics teacher while Joel’s father is a teacher of History.
— Anand likes History and Joel likes Mathematics. It is interesting to note that the former is the son of a Mathematics teacher while the latter’s father is a teacher of History.
2. Seema, the monitor of class IX and Ramesh, the monitor of class X were asked to meet the Principal before they went home.
— Seema and Ramesh, the monitors of class IX and X respectively, were asked to meet the Principal before they went home.
Other types of substitution
Study the following sentences
See the Workbook on Page 170
Use any of the above types of substitution to improve the following sentences.
1. Flendian Whalers killed more minkes in 2010 than they killed in 2000.
— Flendian Whalers killed more minkes in 2010 than they did in 2000.
2. The fishermen were condemned for catching so many small fish. They said they caught so many small fish because they had to earn a living.
— The fishermen were condemned for catching so many small fish. They said they did so because they had to earn a living.
3. The light racquet was ineffective but the heavy racquet was difficult to handle.
— The light racquet was ineffective but the heavy one was difficult to handle.
4. The rains are very unpredictable in Shillong. We were advised to come prepared for rainy weather conditions.
— The rains are very unpredictable in Shillong. We were advised to come prepared for them.
5. Mr Chopra entertained the guests very well. Mrs Chopra also entertained the guests very well.
— Mr Chopra entertained the guests very well. So did Mrs Chopra.
6. What is lying outside in the garden ?
It’s one of the two umbrellas we bought yesterday. Didn’t you see the umbrella in the lobby ?
— It’s one of the two umbrellas we bought yesterday. Didn’t you see the one in the lobby ?
7. A : “I won’t stay away from school tomorrow.”
B : “I should hope you will not stay away from school tomorrow.”
— A: “I won’t stay away from school tomorrow.
B : “I should hope so.
Sometimes we can avoid repetition by omitting certain words and phrases. Which words or phrases have been left out in the following examples ? Is the meaning in all of them clear in spite of the omission ?
Oil is not found in the north but copper is.
is = is found in the north
What has been omitted in the following sentences ?
1. A : “Did she find out who had stolen her purse ?”
B : “No, she didn’t.”
didn’t = ____________________
2. You take my book and I’ll take Indu’s when she gets back.
Indu’s = ____________________
3. If I don’t get it to you tomorrow, I’ll send it the day after.
The day after = ____________________
4. Firstly, add four grams, then another four, then another four until the mixture has solidified.
Another four/ another = ____________________
5. There were a number of graduates who were earning more than I was.
was = ____________________
6. I think we need coaching more than they do.
do = ____________________
7. A : “I can tell you what I know.”
B : “You needn’t. I’m not asking you to.”
needn’t = ____________________
to = ____________________
8. A: “Do you visit the doctor regularly ?”
B: “No, I can’t afford to.”
to = ____________________
- = didn’t find out who had stolen her purse
- = Indu’s book
- = The day after tomorrow
- = another four grams
- = was earning
- = need coaching
- = needn’t tell me what you know, = to tell me what you know
- = to visit the doctor regularly
Complete the following conversation between two sisters with suitable substitute words.
Mitali : Did you buy the dress you had seen in the shop ?
Chetali : No, I _______
Mitali : But why ? You liked _______, didn’t you ?
Chetali : I had second thoughts about it. Well, I thought I would wear one of _______ instead. You have so many of them in your wardrobe.
Mitali : I _______ but _______ are all designer dresses unlike the cheap stuff you wear and I am not going to let you touch _______ of them. Do you understand ?
Chetali : That’s not fair !
Mitali : It _______. Everyone should wear their own dresses. So you’d better go and bnv that dress before someone else _______.
didn’t, it, yours have, those, any is, does
Go back to the Unit 8 on Comparisons. Where can you find examples of substitution and omission in it ?
Examples of substitution are in A.2. of Unit 8.
Examples of omission are in B1 of Unit 8.
(a) Match the sentences in A and B and write them together in the spaces below.
|1. Both Ajay and Sahir are good players.
2. Thousands of baby turtles set out on the long journey.
3. Some like to eat fish raw.
4. No one knows who did it.
5. Not many people get to university.
|(a) Few reach their destination.
(b) Either would be suitable as a captain.
(c) Those who do have to study hard.
(d) Others prefer it cooked.
(e) It could be anyone.
- Both Ajay and Sahir are good players. Either would be suitable as a captain.
- Thousands of baby turtles set out on the long journey. Few reach their destination.
- Some like to eat fish raw. Others prefer it cooked.
- No one knows who did it. It could be anyone.
- Not many people get to university. Those who do have to study hard.
(b) Now underline the substitution word in each of the sentences written above and decide what each of the words refers to.
|Substitution Word||What does it refer to ?|
|1. Either||Ajay or Sahir|
|2. Few||Only some of them|
|A. It||The person who did it|
|5. do||get to university|