Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 3

Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 3

Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The Great Depression was a period of _______ .
Answer:
Economic crisis

Question 2.
What is the German Parliament known as ?
Answer:
The German Parliament is known as the Reichstag.

Question 3.
A camp where people were isolated and detained without due process of law, referred to as _______ .
Answer:
Concentration camp

Question 4.
Which Article of the Weimar Constitution gave the President the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree ?
Answer:
Article 48

Question 5.
Who offered the chancellorship to Hitler on 30 January 1933 ?
Answer:
President Hindenburg

Question 6.
People of Weimar Republic lost confidence in the democratic _______ .
Answer:
Parliamentary system

Question 7.
The Nazi Party had become largest party by _______ .
Answer:
1932

Question 8.
The Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Japan and _______ .
Answer:
Italy

Question 9.
Nazi propaganda projected _______ .
Answer:
Hitler as a messiah

Question 10.
Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age were called _______ .
Answer:
Jungvolk

Question 11.
What was Auschwitz ?
Answer:
Auschwitz was the centre for mass killing during Nazi rule.

Question 12.
What was the original name of Nazi party ?
Answer:
The National Socialist German Workers Party.

Question 13.
The gas chambers that looked like bathrooms, equipped with fake shower heads, were labelled as _______ .
Answer:
Disinfection areas

Question 14.
How did Hitler view war ?
Answer:
Hitler viewed war as the way out of the approaching economic crisis.

Question 15.
When was the Enabling Act passed in Germany ?
Answer:
On 3rd March, 1933

Question 16.
Name the four countries included in the Allied Powers in World War II.
Answer:
England, France, Russia and USA were included in the Allied Powers.

Question 17.
What was the significance of the Enabling Act ?
Answer:
The Enabling Act enabled Hitler to sideline the Parliament and rule by decree.

Question 18.
Which concept of Hitler’s ideology revealed his desire for an extended empire ?
Answer:
The geopolitical concept or concept of living space revealed his desire for an extended empire.

Question 19.
Which country used atomic bombs during World War II ?
Answer:
USA used atomic bombs during World War II against Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Question 20.
What was the work entrusted to the International War Tribunal set up in Nuremberg after the war ?
Answer:
It was set up to prosecute Nazi war criminals for crimes against peace, for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Question 21.
What was the name given to separately marked areas where the Jews lived ?
Answer:
The separately marked areas where the Jews lived were called ghettos.

Question 22.
Which incident persuaded the USA to join the war ?
Answer:
Japan’s unprovoked attack on the US base at Pearl Harbour in December 1941 persuaded the USA to join the war.

Question 23.
What do you know about Wall Street Exchange ?
Answer:
It is the name of the world’s biggest stock exchange.

Question 24.
Which countries were known as Axis Powers in World War II ?
Answer:
Germany, Italy and Japan were known as Axis Powers.

Question 25.
When did Youth League of the Nazis found ?
Answer:
The Youth League of the Nazis was founded in 1922.

Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Trace any three main features of the foreign policy of Hitler.
Answer:

  • On 30th January 1933, Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany and established dictatorship.
  • Right from the beginning, he followed a policy of aggression and war towards other countries.
  • He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied Rhineland in 1936 and integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan ‘One people, One empire, One leader’.

Question 2.
The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace. Explain the statement with any three examples.
Answer:

  • In the First World War, Germany was defeated. The peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace.
  • Germany lost its overseas colonies and also much of its territories in Europe.
  • Germany lost 75% of its iron and 26% of its coal to France and other countries.
  • The Allied Powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its power. Germany was forced to pay compensation amounting to £ 6 billion.
  • The Allied forces occupied the resources rich Rhineland till the 1920s. (Any three)

Question 3.
Explain the three fold plan of Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany to consolidate the Nazi power.
Answer:

  • Hitler’s three fold plan comprised of capturing the legal authority to rule, crushing the country’s political opposition and eliminating rivals within the party.
    In the pursuit of first, he used the Reichstag fire incident to clamp down the communists. He armed himself with the emergency powers and murdered and jailed key communist leaders and suppressed civil liberties.
  • In March 1933, the German Reichstag passed the enabling laws which transferred all the powers from the Reichstag to the government headed by him.
  • Further, Hitler turned his attention to the rival political parties. He outlawed all existing and potential opposition institutions. By July 1933, the Nazis were the only legitimate party in Germany.

Question 4.
When did Hitler formally announce his violation of the Treaty of Versailles ?
What reason did he give for this ?
Answer:

  • Hitler formally announced his violation of the Treaty of Versailles in March 1935.
  • Hitler claimed that he was trying to make Germany equal in position to the other European powers.
  • Since European nations had not followed the policy of disarmament, German rearmament was a necessity.

Question 5.
What was the ideology of the Nazis regarding the Jews ?
Answer:
The ideology of the Nazis regarding the Jews were :

  • All schools were cleansed and purified under Nazism. Those teachers were dismissed who were found to be Jews or seen as politically unreliable.
  • German and Jew children were not allowed to sit or play together.
  • All the undesirable children—Jews, Gypsies, and the physically handicapped were dismissed from schools and.Jinally were taken to gas chambers in the 1940s.

Question 6.
What do you know about ‘Nazi schooling’ ?
Answer:
All ‘Good German’ children were subjected to a prolonged period of ideological training—a process of Nazi schooling. School textbooks were rewritten. Racial science was introduced to justify Nazi ideas of race. Children were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews, and worship Hitler. Even sports was used to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among children. Hitler believed boxing made children iron-hearted, strong and masculine.

Question 7.
What was the Nazis ideology regarding motherhood ?
Answer:
In Nazi Germany, children were repeatedly told that women were radically different from men. It was preached that the fight for equal rights for men and women was wrong and it would destroy the society. The boys were taught to be aggressive, masculine and steel-hearted. The girls were taught to become good mothers. They were supposed to rear pure-blooded Aryan children and maintain the purity of the race. They had to distance themselves from Jews, look after the home, and over and above teach their children the Nazi values.

Question 8.
What were the results of the victory of Nazism in Germany ?
Answer:

  • The victory of Nazism in Germany led to the destruction of democracy and establishment of dictatorship.
  • It also led to the militarism and preparation for the war.
  • In Germany, all other political parties were banned except the Nazi Party.
  • Nazism opposed Socialism and Communism, so the advocates of these philosophies were either jailed or killed.

Question 9.
Why did the USA show unwillingness to get involve in the Second World War initially ? Why did it change its attitude afterwards ?
Answer:
The USA had resisted involvement in the war. It was unwilling to once again face all the economic problems that the First World War had caused. But it could not stay out of the war for long. Japan was expanding its power in the east. It had occupied French Indo-China and was planning attacks on US naval bases in the Pacific.

When Japan extended its support to Hitler and bombed the US base at Pearl Harbor, the US entered the Second World War. The war ended in May 1945 with Hitler’s defeat and the US dropping of the atom bomb on Hiroshima in Japan.

Question 10.
Why was the International Military Tribunal set up in Nuremberg at the end of the Second World War ?
Answer:
At the end of the Second World War the International Military Tribunal was set up in Nuremberg to prosecute Nazi War Criminals. The Tribunal prosecuted the Nazi’s for crimes against Peace, for War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity. However, the Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced only eleven leading Nazis to death. Many other imprisoned for life.

Question 11.
What is hyperinflation ? What were the factors that led to hyperinflation in Germany ?
Answer:
Hyperinflation is a situation when prices rise phenomenally high. This situation occurred in Germany in 1932 due to following reasons :

  • Germany had fought the war largely on loans and had to pay war reparations in gold. This depleted gold reserves at a time resources were scarce.
  • In 1923 Germany refused to pay, and the French occupied its leading industrial area, Ruhr, to claim their coal. Germany retaliated with passive resistance and printed paper currency recklessly. With too much printed money in circulation, the value of the German mark fell.

Question 12.
Explain the factors which led to the rise of Hitler in Germany.
Answer:
The factors which led to the rise of Hitler in Germany were :

  • Germany was compelled to sign the treaty by which she had to pay a huge war indemnity. This treaty created the feeling of dissatisfaction among the people of Germany. The Weimar Republic was regarded as a symbol of national disgrace. Hitler assured the Germans about the restoration of the old prestige, so they became his followers.
  • Germany had to face a Great Economic crisis after the First World War. Many soldiers were no more in service, so they became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined. In 1929, there was, however, a great slump in Europe. Germany was in the grip of unemployment and starvation. The prices rose and the value of money fell.
  • The Germans had no faith in democracy. It was against their culture and tradition. They, at once, gave support to a strong man of action like Hitler who could turn their dreams into reality.

Question 13.
What were the provision of the famous Enabling Act ?
Answer:
On 3 March 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed. The provisions of the Enabling Act were given below :

  • This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to sideline Parliament and rule by decree.
  • All political parties and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi Party and its affiliates. The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
  • Special surveillance and security forces were created to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted.

Question 14.
What promises did Hitler make to the German people ? How did he mobilise them ?
Answer:
Hitler was a powerful speaker. His passion and his words moved people. He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people.

He promised employment for those looking for work, and a secure future for the youth. He promised to weed out all foreign influences and resist all foreign ‘conspiracies’ against Germany.

Hitler devised a new style of politics. He understood the significance of rituals and spectacle in mass mobilisation. Nazis held massive rallies and public meetings to demonstrate the support for Hitler and instil a sense of unity among the people. The Red banners with the Swastika, the Nazi salute, and the ritualised rounds of applause after the speeches were all part of this spectacle of power.

Question 15.
From whom did Hitler borrow his racist ideology ? Explain.
Answer:
(a) Hitler borrowed his racist ideology from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer.
(b) Darwin was a natural scientist who tried to explain the creation of plants and • animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Darwin never
advocated human intervention in what he thought was a purely natural process of selection.
(c) Herbert Spencer later added the idea of survival of the fittest. According to this idea, only those species survived on earth that could adapt themselves to changing climatic conditions.
However, his ideas were used by racist thinkers and politicians to justify imperial rule over conquered peoples.

Question 16.
Describe the effect of Great Economic depression on Germany ?
Answer:
The effect of Great Economic depression on Germany were :

  • The German economy was the worst hit by the Great Economic depression. By 1932, industrial production was reduced to 40% of the 1929 level. Workers lost their jobs or were paid reduced wages.
  • The number of unemployed touched an unprecedented 6 million. Men could be seen on streets with placards saying,’ Willing to do any work’. As jobs disappeared, youth took to criminal activities, and total despair became common place.
  • There were deep anxieties and fears in people. The middle classes, especially salaried employees and pensioners, saw their savings diminish when the currency lost its value.
  • The large mass of peasantry was badly affected by a sharp fall in agricultural prices.

Question 17.
‘In my state the mother is the most important citizen.’ Discuss this statement made by Hitler.
Answer:
(a) Though Hitler said that in my state the mother is the most important citizen, it was not true.
(b) All mothers were not treated equally. Women who bore racially desirable children were awarded, while those who bore racially undesirable children were punished.
(c) Women who bore ‘desirable’ children were entitled to privileges and rewards. They were given special treatment in hospitals and concessions in shops and on theatre tickets and railway fares.

Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What steps were taken by Adolf Hitler for the destruction of democracy ?
Answer:
The following steps were taken by Hitler for the destruction of democracy :

  • A mysterious fire that broke out in the German Parliament building in February, 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights. It is said that the fire was broken out by Hitler’s supporters, while Hitler blamed his political enemies for it. The Fire Decree of 28 February, 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights such as freedom of expression, speech, press and assembly that had been guaranteed by the Weimar Constitution.
  • After that Adolf Hitler turned on his enemy, i.e., the Communists of Germany, most ‘ of the communists were quickly packed off to the newly established concentration camps.
  • The repression of the Communists was severe. Their membership was in thousands. They were, however, only one among the 52 types of victims persecuted by the Nazis across the country.
  • On 3rd March, 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed. This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Adolf Hitler all political and administrative powers to sideline German Parliament and rule by decree.

Question 2.
What were the main effects of Nazi rule on Germany ?
Answer:
The victory of Nazism produced far reaching effects on Germany :

  • Hitler tried to pull his country out of the Economic Crisis that had befallen on Germany as a result of her defeat in the First World War.
    Different types of industries were set up to provide work to the workmen. Trade was encouraged with the same aim in mind.
  • Hitler inspired to make Germany a powerful country and enhanced his military power in all possible ways.
  • All political parties except the Nazi Party were banned. And, then a Reign of Terror was let loose in Germany. Assassinations of anti-Nazi leaders took place on a large scale.
  • The Communist Parties were also banned.
  • Trade unions were suppressed.

Question 3.
What did Hitler do to overcome the economic crisis that badly hit the German economy ?
Answer:
After establishing his dictatorship in Germany,he took major steps towards the economic reconstruction.
Hitler assigned the responsibility of economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht who aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work-creation programme.

In foreign policy also, Hitler acquired quick successes. He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936, and integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan, One people, One empire, and One leader.

He then went on to wrest German speaking Sudentenland from Czechoslovakia and gobbled up the entire country. In all of this he had the unspoken support of England, which had considered the Versailles verdict too harsh. These quick successes at home and abroad seemed to reverse the destiny of the country.

Hitler chose war as the way out of the approaching economic crisis. Resources were to be accumulated through expansion of territory. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England. In September 1940, a Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan, strengthening Hitler’s claim to , international power.

Hitler now moved to achieve his long-term aim of conquering Eastern Europe. He wanted to ensure food supplies and living space for Germans. He attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941. In this historic blunder Hitler exposed the German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to the powerful Soviet armies.

Question 4.
Why is Nazism considered a calamity not only for Germany but for the entire Europe ?
Answer:
Nazi ideology specified that there was racial hierarchy and no equality between people.
(a) The blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while the Jews were located somewhere on the lowest rung of the ladder.
(b) The number of people killed by Nazi Germany was 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 1 million Polish civilians, 70,000 Germans.
(c) Nazism glorified the use of force and brutality. It ridiculed internationalism, peace and democracy.
(d) Nazi Germany became the most dreaded criminal state. Hitler chose war as the way out of approaching the economic crisis.
(e) Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England in September 1940.

Question 5.
Explain the impact of the First World War on European society and polity.
Answer:
The First World War left a deep imprint on European society and polity. It had a devastating impact on the entire continent.
(a) In society, soldiers were ranked higher than civilians. Trench life of the soldiers was glorified by the media. The media glorified trench life.
(b) Politicians and publicists laid great stress on the need for men to be aggressive and masculine.
(c) Aggressive war propaganda and national honour occupied centre stage in the public sphere.
(d) Popular support grew for conservative dictatorships that had recently come into being.
(e) Democracy as a young and fragile idea could not survive the instabilities of interwar Europe.

Nazims and The Rise of Hitler Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions

Question 1.
Trace the events that led to the birth of the Weimar Republic.
Answer:
In the 20th century Germany was a powerful Empire. During the First World War Germany took up the cause of Austria against the Allies. Many countries joined the war hoping to gain something, without realizing the fact that the war would prolong and drain Europe of its resources. Though Germany made initial gains by occupying France and Belgium, the Allies became stronger when the US joined them in 1917 and defeated Germany and the Central Powers.

The defeat of Germany resulted in the abdication of the German Emperor. This gave an opportunity for the parliamentary parties to bring in a change, in German politics. A democratic constitution with a federal structure was formed by the National Assembly, which met at Weimar and the Weimar Republic came into existence.

Question 2.
What was the out come of the Versailles treaty?
Answer:
At the end of the First World War, in which Germany lost, a peace treaty was signed at Versailles with the Allies. The Versailles treaty was harsh and humiliating, for the Germans. Germany lost its
Over seas colonies
One tenth of its population
13% of its territories
75% of its iron and
26% of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.
The Allied powers demilitarized Germany to weaken its power.
The War Guild Clause held Germany responsible for the war and damages the Allied countries suffered.
Germany was forced to pay a compensation of £ 6 billion.
The Allied armies occupied the resource- rich Rhineland.

Question 3.
What was the impact of the war on the European Society and politics?
Answer:
The impact of the war on the European Society was devastating. It affected the economic, social and political fibre of Europe.

  • The soldiers were placed above the civilians.
  • Politicians and publicists emphasized on the need for men to be aggressive, strong and masculine.
  • Trench life was glorified by the media though in actual practice the soldiers led a miserable life in the trench with rats feeding on the corpses and faced poisonous gas.
  • Though war and national honour was brought to the fore front, people were in support of the conservative dictatorship.
  • Due to the instabilities of war, European democracy could not survive, as it was a new idea.

Question4.
Write a short note on the Spartacist League.
Answer:
Germany had to pay war reparation after its defeat in the First World War. But Germany refused to pay the reparation and France occupied Ruhr to claim Germany’s coal. In retaliation Germany printed paper currency recklessly. As a result, the value of German mark collapsed and prices of goods soared.

In December 1923, 1 US dollar was equal to 98,860,000 marks. People had to carry a cart load of currency to buy a loaf of bread. This crisis is known as hyperinflation.

Question 5.
What brought about the Great Economic Depression?
Answer:
There was some financial stability between 1924 and 1928. Short term loans from the USA helped industrial recovery in Germany. In 1929, when the Wall Street Exchange crushed, the US withdrew all the loans. People rushed in to sell their shares as they thought that the prices would go down drastically. It was said that on the 24th October alone about 13 million shares were sold. This brought about the Great Economic Depression.

The national income of the US fell by nearly 50% between 1929 and 1932. The factories were shut down, exports fell, farmers were affected badly and the speculators withdrew their money from the market. All these affected not only the US but the entire world.

Question 6.
How did the Great Economic Depression affect Germany?
Answer:
As in the USA and the rest of the world, the Great Economic Depression had adverse effect on Germany and its people. The industrial production came down to less than 40% compared to 1929.
Workers either lost their jobs or were paid less.
About 6 million people were left without any employment.
As jobs disappeared the youth took to criminal activities.
Total despair, a deep anxiety and fear became common place in people.
The saving of salaried people and the pensioners began to diminish when the value of money went down.
Small businessmen, self employed and the retailers were ruined.
Big business was not possible.
The sharp fall in agricultural prices affected the peasants to a great extent.
Women were in deep despair as they could not feed their children properly.

Question 7.
What were the powers that were given to the Police Forces in the Nazi State?
Answer:
The newly organised Police Forces , in the Nazi State, were given so much powers that people could be detained in Gestapo torture chambers, they could be rounded up and sent to concentration camps, or be deported or arrested without any legal procedure. The police force could function with such unwieldy authority that the Nazi state was known as the most dreaded criminal state.

Question 8.
What were Hitler’s Foreign Policies?
Answer:
Hitler’s Foreign Policies were a great success. He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933. He reoccupied the Rhineland , which was confiscated by the French ,in 1936. In 1938 Hitler integrated Austria and Germany under the slogan, One people, One empire, and One leader.

He then captured the German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia, and soon gobbled up the entire country.
In all of his foreign activities Hitler had the unspoken support of England, which had considered the Versailles verdict too harsh. These quick successes Hitler had at home and abroad reversed the destiny of the country.

Question 9.
What was the historic blunder Hitler committed in 1941?
Answer:
In June 1941, Hitler attacked the Soviet Union. The German western front was exposed to British aerial bombing and the eastern front was crushed by the powerful Soviet Red Army at Stalingrad. Thus the Soviet established its leadership over entire Eastern Europe for the next 50 years. This was the historical blunder committed by Hitler.

Question 10.
What was the reaction of the common people to Nazism?
Answer:
The common people reacted positively to Nazism. They saw the world through Nazi eyes and spoke their mind in the Nazi language. The common man felt anger and hatred when he saw the Jews. They marked the houses of the Jews and reported about suspicious neighbours.
They believed that Nazism would bring prosperity and general well-being.
A large majority of Germans were passive onlookers and were scared to differ or protest.

Question 11.
What were the terms given by the Nazis when they wanted to convey the words ’kill’ or ‘murder in their official communications ?
Answer:
The Nazis used the words ‘special treatment or final Solution’ to convey mass killing of the Jews. The words , ‘selection or disinfection’ was used for the elimination of the disabled and to deport people to the Gas Chambers the Nazis used the word ‘evacuation’.
Gas Chambers were called ‘disinfection areas’. These chambers looked like a bath rooms with fake showerheads.

Question 12.
How were women treated in Nazi Germany?
Answer:
Women in the Nazi Germany were treated as important citizens. Motherhood was glorified, but not all mothers were not treated equally. The women who bore desirable children were awarded. They were given favoured treatment in hospitals and concessions in theatres and shops. Those who bore undesirable children were condemned and punished severely.

Honour Crosses were given to women who produced more children. Women with 4 children were given a Bronze cross, women with 5 were given a Silver cross , while women who bore 8 children and more were given a Gold cross.
Aryan women who deviated from the given code of conduct were severely punished

Question 13.
What was expected of the youth in Nazi Germany?
Answer:
All the young men above the age of 18 years were expected to serve in the armed forces and enter one of the Nazi organisations.
At the tender age of 10 they had to join ‘Jungvolk’ – Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age. At 14 years of age they enrolled in the Nazi Youth Organisation called ‘Hitler Youth’.

The German youth were educated in the spirit of National Socialism by these youth organisations. They were taught to worship war, glorify aggression and violence , condemn democracy , hate Jews, communists, gypsies and all those who were called ‘undesirable’.

Question 14.
Why did the Nazis hate the Jews?
Answer:
Traditionally the Jews were considered as the killers of Jesus Christ. It was this traditional hostility and the fact that were basically money lenders charging excessive interest that made the Nazis hate the Jews.

Question 15.
Why did the German Mark collapse?
Answer:
Germany had to pay war reparation after its defeat in the First World War. But Germany refused to pay the reparation and France occupied Ruhr to claim Germany’s coal. In retaliation Germany printed paper currency recklessly. As a result, the value of German mark collapsed and prices of goods soared.

In December 1923, 1 US dollar was equal to 98,860,000 marks. People had to carry a cart load of currency to buy a loaf of bread. This crisis is known as hyperinflation.

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