NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

Water Resource NCERT Class 10 SST Geography NCERT Solutions

Question-1
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’ Region with high annual rainfall
Solution:
‘not suffering from water scarcity’

Question-2:
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’. Region having high annual rainfall and large population
Solution:
‘not suffering from water scarcity’

Question-3
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’ Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.
Solution:
‘suffering from water scarcity’

Question-4.
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’ Region having low rainfall and low population.
Solution:
‘suffering from water scarcity’

Question-5
Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multipurpose river projects?
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas, which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow helps to control floods.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large-scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.
Solution:
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas, which suffer from water scarcity.

Question-6
Here is a false statement. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.
Solution:
Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in improper utilisation of water resources.

Question-7.
Here is a false statement. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly. Regulating and damming of rivers does not affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.
Solution:
Regulating and damming of rivers affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.

Question-8:
Here is a false statement. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
Solution:
In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.

Question-9:
Here is a false statement. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Rajasthan Canal.
Solution:
Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite low water availability due to the Rajasthan Canal.

Question-10:
Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.
Solution:
Three-fourth of the earth’s surface is covered with water, but only a small proportion of it accounts for freshwater that can be put to use. This freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. All water moves within the hydrological cycle ensuring that water is a renewable resource.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 SST Chapter 3 Question-11
What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
Solution:
Water scarcity is the shortage of water but it is not only associated with regions having low rainfall or those that are drought-prone. The availability of water resources varies over space and time, mainly due to the variations in seasonal and annual precipitation, but water scarcity in most cases is caused by overexploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 SST Chapter 3 Question-12:
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.
Solution:
Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier streambeds and poorer habitats for the rivers’ aquatic life. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning. It has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil. At the same time, it has transformed the social landscape i.e. increasing the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor.

The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods due to sedimentation in the reservoir. Moreover, the big dams have mostly been unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall. It was also observed that the multi-purpose projects induced earthquakes, caused waterborne diseases and pests and pollution resulting from excessive use of water.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 SST Chapter 3 Question-13:
Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.
Solution:
In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water. The tanks could be as large as a big room. The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’. The first spell of rain was usually not collected, as this would clean the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected.

The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers. Rainwater, or palar pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water. Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the ‘tanka’ to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 SST Chapter 3 Question-14
Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.
Solution:
Fortunately, in many parts of rural and urban India, rooftop rainwater harvesting is being successfully adapted to store and conserve water. In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have installed, in their household’s rooftop, rainwater-harvesting system to meet their water needs. Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the rare distinction of being rich in rainwater. Rainwater harvesting is once again being conserved through modern adaptation. Rainwater running down from the roofs is not fed into drains. Instead it is piped into underground reservoirs.

Multiple Choice Questions

Previous Years’ Questions
1. Which one of the following is not the cause of water scarcity? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Rapid growth of population
(b) Uneven distribution of water resources
(c) Constructions of dams and reserves
(d) Increase in demand

2. Which state has made roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Kerala
(b) Karnataka
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) Andhra Pradesh

3. On which of the following rivers is Koyna dam built? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Krishna
(b) Kaveri
(c) Ganga
(d) Mahanadi

4. Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is built on which river? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Chenab
(b) Mahanadi
(c) Krishna
(d) Satluj

NCERT Questions
5. Which of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multi-purpose river projects ?
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow help to control floods.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.

Additional Questions
6. The first multi-purpose project of India was
(a) Sivasamudram
(b) Damodar Valley
(c) Hirakud
(d) Rajasthan Canal

7. Sardar Sarovar Dam is constructed on
(a) River Krishna
(b) River Mahanadi
(c) River Kaveri
(d) River Narmada

8. Rooftop rainwater harvesting system in Rajasthan is known as
(a) Guls
(b) Tankas
(c) Johads
(d) Baolis

9. Bamboo drip irrigation is common in the state of
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Meghalaya
(d) Karnataka

10. Water is a renewable resource because
(a) it is being recycled by human beings.
(b) it is renewed and recharged through hydrological cycle.
(c) it is being renewed through reduction.
(d) it can be reused again.

11. How much of the earth’s surface is covered by water?
(a) 1/2
(b) 2/3
(c) 1/4
(d) 3/4

12. Oceans contain ………….. volume of water.
(a) 90 percent
(b) 75 percent
(c) 96.5 percent
(d) 98 percent

13. The amount of freshwater on the earth’s surface is
(a) 1.5 percent
(b) 2.5 percent
(c) 3 percent
(d) 5 percent

14. On which river is the Bhakra Nangal Dam located ?
(a) Jhelum
(b) Chambal
(c) Satluj
(d) Chenab

15. Hirakud dam is located in which one of the following states?
(a) Andhra Pradesh
(b) West Bengal
(c) Orissa
(d) Tamil Nadu

16. Mettur Dam is located on
(a) R. Krishna
(b) R. Mahanadi
(c) R. Narmada
(d) R. Kaveri

17. Which one of the following is not a source of freshwater ?
(a) Oceans
(b) Surface run off
(c) Ice-sheets
(d) Groundwater

18. What percentage of the global precipitation is received in India ?
(a) 2 percent
(b) 5 percent
(c) 4 percent
(d) 10 percent

19. Water scarcity occurs due to
(i) low rainfall in a region
(ii) large population
(iii) over-exploitation
(iv) unequal access
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) All of the above

20. Water scarcity is a serious problem in recent years mainly in
(a) Cities
(b) Rural areas
(c) Deserts
(d) Mountains

21. In India hydroelectric power contributes to what percentage of the total electricity produced ?
(a) 30 percent
(b) 22 percent
(c) 20 percent
(d) 40 percent

22. We need to conserve water because
(i) it will be exhausted.
(ii) it is needed for our livelihood and other economic activities.
(iii) it will ensure food security.
(iv) there is abundance of water.
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(d) (i) and (iv)

23. The diversion channels of the Western Himalayas are called
(a) Canals
(b) Inundation channels
(c) Kuls
(d) Khadins

24. Which of the following rivers is known as the ‘River of Sorrow’ ?
(a) Hugli
(b) Damodar
(c) Narmada
(d) Kosi

25. Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is located in the state of
(a) Orissa
(b) Karnataka
(c) Kerala
(d) Andhra Pradesh

26. In which state is the Tehri Dam located ?
(a) Himachal Pradesh
(b) Punjab
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Uttarakhand

27. In semi arid regions of Rajasthan the traditional system of storing drinking water in underground tanks are called
(a) Dugwells
(b) Johads
(c) Tankas
(d) None of the above

28. Which of the following Indian rivers are the most polluted ?
(a) Ganga and Yamuna
(b) Ganga and Indus
(c) Godavari and Krishna
(d) Kosi and Damodar

29. Which one of the following statements is incorrect as regards to opposition against multi-purpose projects.
(a) Regulating and damming of rivers affected the natural flow.
(b) It has caused interstate river water disputes.
(c) It has increased the social gap between the rich land owners and the landless poor.
(d) They are successful in meeting many objectives.

30. Khadins and Johads are the rain fed storage structures of which of the following states ?
(a) Karnataka
(b) Assam
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Tamil Nadu

31. Which village in Karnataka has earned a rare distinction of being rich in rain water ?
(a) Tumkur
(b) Hosur
(c) Devana halli
(d) Gendathur

32. On which of the following rivers is the Salal Project located ?
(a) Luni
(b) Satluj
(c) Jhelum
(d) Chenab

33. By 2025 how many people will live in absolute water scarcity?
(a) 1 billion
(b) 5 billion
(c) 2 billion
(d) 6 billion

34. Which one of the following options are incorrect as regards to water scarcity in cities.
(i) Cities have low population
(ii) Increased consumption
(iii) Increased food production
(iv) They receive less rainfall
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) (iii) and (iv)

35. Which one of the following is not the example of Hydraulic structures in Ancient India ?
(a) Bhopal Lake
(b) Lake Hauz Kauz
(c) Construction of dams, Lakes
(d) Damodar Valley Project

ANSWERS

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources MCQs Answers

Water Resource CBSE Class 10 SST Geography Extra Questions

Water Resource NCERT Class 10 SST Geography Extra Questions

Question-1
What is the situation regarding water scarcity in post independent India?
Solution:
Post-independent India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation, creating vast opportunities for us. Today, large industrial houses are as common placeas the industrial units of many MNCs(Multinational Corporations). The ever-increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to run them. Much of this energy comes from hydroelectric power. Today, in India hydroelectric power contributes approximately 22 per cent of the total electricity produced. Moreover, multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further aggravated the problem. If you look into the housing societies or colonies in the cities, you would find that most of these have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their water needs.

Question-2:
What are the causes of water scarcity in available areas?
Solution:
This scarcity may be due to bad quality of water. Lately, there has been a growing concern that even if there is ample water to meet the needs of the people, much of it may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture, thus, making it hazardous for human use.
Question-3:
Give a short note on Multi-purpose projects In India.
Solution:
Multi-purpose projects, launched after Independence with their integrated water resources management approach, were thought of as the vehicle that would lead the nation to development and progress, overcoming the handicap of its colonial past. Jawaharlal Nehru proudly proclaimed the dams as the ‘temples of modern India’; the reason being that it would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid industrialisation and growth of the urban economy.
Question-4:
What were the different methods of traditional rain-water harvesting?
Solution:
There existed an extraordinary tradition of water-harvesting system. People had in-depth knowledge of rainfall regimes and soil types and developed wide ranging techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, river water and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs. In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the ‘guls’or ‘kuls’ of the Western Himalayas for agriculture.
‘Rooftop rain water harvesting’was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan. In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. In arid an semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the ‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan.
Question-5:
Give a short note on Rooftop rainwater harvesting.
Solution:
Rooftop harvesting was common across the towns and villages of the Thar. Rainwater that falls on the sloping roofs of houses is taken through a pipe into an underground tanka (circular holes in the ground).It is built in the main house or in the courtyard. Water can be taken from a neighbour’s roof through a long pipe. A hole is made through which rainwater flows down into an underground tanka.
Question-6:
State two objectives of rainwater harvesting?
Solution:
1.It reduces run-off of potable water back into the sea.
2.It prevents water –logging in roads during rainy season.
Question-7:
What are two measures of conservation of water resources?
Solution:
Rainwater harvesting.
Transfer of water from flood prone basins to drought prone basins.
Question-8:
Give four major uses of water.
Solution:
Drinking and domestic consumption like washing clothes.
2.Irrigation of farm lands.
3.Generation of Hydro-electricity.
4.Cooling at home and in industrial establishments.
Question-9:
What do you understand by underground water? Mention two areas where underground water is abundant.
Solution:
Water resources that lie beneath the surface of the earth is called underground water resources. These come into existence due to the seepage of ground water during rainy spells. Northernplains and coastal regions have abundant underground water. This is because the plains are flat and the rock strata are permeable.
Question-10:
Name any Multi-purpose projects In India and give three contributions of that project.
Solution:
The Damodar Valley Project offers the following advantages:
1) Power station under that project provides 104 MW of Hydro electricity.
2.The project provides 136 km of inland waterways through reservoirs and canals.
Its canals irrigate 4,50,000 hectares of agricultural land.
Question-11:
What is a Multi-purpose project? State two purposes, which are fulfilled by multi-purpose projects.
Solution:
Multi-purpose projects comprises of one or more dams erected to contain the free flow of water, storage of water in artificially created reservoirs, power house for generation of Hydro-electricity and feeder canals for irrigation.
1) They are designed to generate Hydro-electricity.
2) Store water for feeding irrigation channels.
Question-12
Give two reasons why precipitation is called primary source of water on earth.
Solution:
Precipitation causes rains. The rainwater flow into rivers that are one of the primary sources of water.
Rainwater made available by precipitation seeps into ground creating ground water reserves.
Question-13:
Give 2 examples of over-exploitation of water resources.
Solution:
Mineral water bottling plants and deep bore wells are two examples of over-exploitation of water resources.
Question-14:
How much of the world’s water exist as fresh water?
Solution:
2.5 % of the world’s water exists as fresh water.
Question-15:
Identify the sources of fresh water supply?
Solution:
Precipitation, surface run-off and ground water are sources of fresh water supply.
Question-16:
How has industrialisation affected the quality of river waters?
Solution:
Discharges of untreated effluents in the river by industrial units have polluted river water.
Question-17:
What are the social consequences of building big dams?
Solution:
Big dam projects cause large scale displacement of people. The displaced people have to give up their homes and their lands. The displaced people do not get the compensation they are promised by the government and are put to a lot of hardship. The advantages of the dam, such as better irrigation facilities, electricity and industrialisation are enjoyed by others, were as the displaced people are left defenceless.
The dams have caused conflict between people who have been displaced and those who have benefited.
Tribal people and farmers are involved in the Narmada Bachao Andolan and Tehri Dam Andolan seeking justice for displacement.
Question-18
What is the situation regarding water scarcity in post independent India?
Solution:
Post-independent India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation, creating vast opportunities for us. Today, large industrial houses are as common placeas the industrial units of many MNCs(Multinational Corporations). The ever-increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to run them. Much of this energy comes from hydroelectric power. Today, in India hydroelectric power contributes approximately 22 per cent of the total electricity produced. Moreover, multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further aggravated the problem. If you look into the housing societies or colonies in the cities, you would find that most of these have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their water needs.
Question-19
What were the different methods of traditional rain-water harvesting?
Solution:
There existed an extraordinary tradition of water-harvesting system. People had in-depth knowledge of rainfall regimes and soil types and developed wide ranging techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, river water and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs. In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the ‘guls’or ‘kuls’ of the Western Himalayas for agriculture.
‘Rooftop rain water harvesting’ was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan. In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. In arid an semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the ‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan.
Question-20:
What is a multi-purpose project? Name any one and give 3 contributions of that project.
Solution:
The Damodar Valley Project offers the following advantages:
1) Power station under that project provides 104 MW of Hydro electricity.
2.The project provides 136 km of inland waterways through reservoirs and canals.
Its canals irrigate 4,50,000 hectares of agricultural land.
Multi-purpose projects comprises of one or more dams erected to contain the free flow of water, storage of water in artificially created reservoirs, power house for generation of Hydro-electricity and feeder canals for irrigation.
1) They are designed to generate Hydro-electricity.
2) Store water for feeding irrigation channels.

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