NCERT Solutions for Class 9 English Literature Chapter 14 The Bishop’s Candlesticks

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 English Literature Chapter 14 The Bishop’s Candlesticks

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 English Literature Reader Chapter 14 The Bishop’s Candlesticks

Textbook Questions Solved

Discuss In Groups
Question 1.
What would you do in the following situations? Give reasons for your answer:

  • If you were travelling by bus and you saw someone pick another passenger’s pocket.
  • If you found a wallet on the road.
  • If you were in a shop and you saw a well- dressed lady shoplifting.
  • If your best friend is getting involved with an undesirable set of friends.
  • If you were in school and you saw one of your classmates steal another child’s pen.

Answer:

  • I would raise an alarm to ask others to overpower him.
  • I would return it to its rightful owner or hand it over to the police.
  • I would inform the police and the owner.
  • I shall advise him to give up the company of the bad boys.
  • I would inform the class teacher or the principal.

Question 2.
Imagine a child has been caught stealing in school. In groups of eight play the roles of

  • The child caught stealing
  • The child she/he stole from
  • The teacher
  • The headmaster
  • The witnesses

Try to find the reason why the child stole and the possible advice you can give her/ him. Should the child be punished? Or should she/he be counselled?
Answer:
A Classroom Activity.

Question 3.
Read the text on Page 112.
Answer:
Self study.

Question 4.
Copy and complete the following paragraph about the theme of the play in pairs:
The play deals with a 1. and 2. Bishop who is always ready to lend a 3. hand to anyone in distress. A 4. breaks into the Bishop’s house and is 5. and warmed. The benevolence of the Bishop somewhat 6. the convict, but, when he sees the silver candlesticks, he 7. them, and runs away. However, he is 8. and brought back. He expects to go back to jail, but the Bishop informs the police they are a 9. The convict is 10. by this kindness of the Bishop and before he leaves he seeks the priest’s blessing.
Answer:
1. convict
2. a
3. helping
4. convict/thief
5. given food
6. changes the heart of
7. steals
8. caught.
9. gift given to him
10. converted/impressed

Question 5.
(a) Working in pairs give antonyms of the following words:

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 English Literature Chapter 14 The Bishop's Candlesticks Q5
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 English Literature Chapter 14 The Bishop's Candlesticks Q5.1
Answer:

Words Words
1. kind-hearted cruel-hearted/ stone- hearted
2. credulous incredulous
3. wild controlled/tamed
4. sentimental unsentimental
5. embittered delighted
6. unscrupulous scrupulous
7. generous mean
8. innocent guilty
9. forgiving revengeful
10. pious impious
11. penitent remorseless
12. trusting mistrusting
13. suspicious credulous
14. clever foolish
15. protective harmful
16. stem soft
17. sympathetic unsympathetic
18. brutal kind
19. concerned unconcerned
20. cunning straightforward
21. benevolent malevolent
22. understanding misunderstanding
23. caring Indifferent
24. honourable Dishonourable

(b) Select words from the above box to describe the characters in the play as revealed by the following lines from the play:

Lines from the play Speaker Quality revealed
1. “You told him she was feeling poorly, did you ? And so my brother is to be kept out of bed, and go without his supper because you told him she was feeling poorly. ”
2. …..  “take my comforter, it will keep you warm. ”
3. “If people lie to me they are poorer, not I. ”
4. “You are like a child. I can’t trust you out of my sight. No sooner my back is turned than you get that minx Marie to sell the silver salt cellars. ”
5. “My dear there is so much suffering in the world, and I can do so very little. ”
6. “My mother gave them to me on—on her death bed just after you were born, and…. and she asked me to keep them in remembrance of her, so I would like to keep them. ”
7. “I am too old a bird to be caught with chaff. ”
8. “You have your soul to lose, my son.”
9. “Give me food or I’ll stick my knife in you both and help myself. ”
10. “…they have made me what I am, they have made me a thief. God curse them all. ”
11. “Why the devil are you kind to me? What do you want? ”
12. “I—I—didn’t believe there was any good in the world… but somehow I—I—know you’re good, and —and it’s a queer thing to ask, but could you, would you bless me before I go? ”

Answer:

Lines from the play Speaker Quality revealed
1. “You told him she was feeling poorly, did you ? And so my brother is to be kept out of bed, and go without his supper because you told him she was feeling poorly. ” Persome stem, hard-heart­ed
2. ………  “take my comforter, it will keep you warm. ” Bishop kind-heart­ed, gener­ous, caring
3. “If people lie to me they are poorer, not I.” Bishop forgiving
4. “You are like a child. I can’t trust you out of my sight. No sooner my back is turned than you get that minx Marie to sell the silver salt cellars. ’’ Persome protective, concerned
5. “My dear there is so much suffering in the world, and I can do so very little. ” Bishop generous, kind-heart­ed
6. “My mother gave them to me on— on her death bed just after you were born, and………….. and she asked me to keep them in remembrance of her, so I would like to keep them. ” Bishop nostalgia, remem­brance
7. “I am too old a bird to be caught with chaff.’’ Convict cunning
8. “You have your soul to lose, my son. ” Convict pity and religiosity
9. “Give me food or I’ll stick my knife in you both and help myself. ” Convict desperate, hard-heart­ed
10. “…they have made me what I am, they have made me a thief. God curse them all. ” Convict pitiless, revengeful
11. “Why the devil are you kind to me? What do you want? ” Convict pitiless, rudeness
12. “I—I—didn’t believe there was any good in the world…but somehow I—I— know you ’re good, and —and it’s a queer thing to ask, but could you, would you bless me before I go?” Convict repen­tance,transfor­mation

Question 6.
Answer the following questions briefly:
(a) Do you think the Bishop was right in selling the salt cellars? Why/Why not?
(b) Why does Persome feel the people pretend to be sick?

(c) Who was Jeanette? What was the cause of her death?

(d) The convict says, “I am too old a bird to be caught with chaff.” What does he mean by this statement?
(e) Why was the convict sent to prison? What was the punishment given to him?
(f) Do you think the punishment given to the convict was justified? Why/Why not? Why is the convict eager to reach Paris?
(g) Before leaving, the convict asks the Bishop to bless him. What brought about this change in him?
Answer:
(a) The Bishop was right in selling the salt cellars. Like” a true Christian, the Bishop always tried to help the needy. Mere Gringoire was ill and had not paid the rent. The bailiff would not wait any longer and threatened to throw her out. So she sent little Jean to the Bishop for help. He had no money. So he had to dispose of the salt cellars to help her.

(b) Persome is made of different stuff. She lacks the basic understanding and sympathy for men. She only believes in safeguarding her and her brother’s interests. She believes that people are not really sick. They only pretend to be so to get help from the Bishop.

(c) Jeanette was the wife of the convict. It was a bad year and Jeanette fell ill. The convict had no job and money even to buy food. She was ill, starving and dying. So, he stole to buy her food. At last, she died of illness and starvation.

(d) The convict tries to give a message to the Bishop and Persome that he is a hard-hearted and cunning person. He is not an innocent fool who can be caught by chaff like a new bird. He had lived in prison or ‘the hell’ for quite a long time. He had learnt all the tricks and cunningness of seasoned criminals. The Bishop’s outwardly soft behaviour and kind gestures can’t trap him in their net.

(e) It was really a bad year for the convict. He had no job and no money. His wife Jeanette fell ill. She was starving. He had to steal to buy her food. He was caught stealing and sent to prison. He told them why he stole, but they laughed at him. He was sentenced to ten years in the prison hulks.

(f) I think, the punishment given to the convict was not justified. He was not a seasoned or habitual criminal. He had no money and had to steal for food for his ill wife. He was sentenced to ten years in the prison hulks. He should have been let off with a mild fine or a token punishment.
He is eager to reach Paris as it is abig city. He cannot be easily traced by the police in such a big city and would be able to lead a new life.

(g) Love and human sympathy are great healers. The large-heartedness of the Bishop saved the convict from going to ‘hell’ again. The Bishop told the police that those candlesticks were given by him as a gift. It left a deep impression on the convict. The wild beast was a man again. He was a reformed and transformed man now. Therefore, he asked the Bishop to bless him before leaving him.

Question 7.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct options.
(A) Monseigneur, the Bishop is a… a hem!
(a) Why does Persome not complete the sentence?
(i) She used to stammer while speaking.
(ii) She was about to praise the Bishop.
(iii) She did not wish to criticise the Bishop in front of Marie.
(iv) She had a habit of passing such remarks.
Answer:
(iii) She did not wish to criticise the Bishop in front of Marie.

(b) Why is she angry with the Bishop?
(i) The Bishop has sold her salt cellars.
(ii) The Bishop has gone to visit Mere Gringoire.
(iii) He showed extra concern for Marie.
(iv) She disliked the Bishop.
Answer:
(i) The Bishop has sold her salt cellars.

(B) She sent little Jean to Monseigneur to ask for help.
(a) Who sent little Jean to the Bishop?
(i) Mere Gringoire
(ii) Marie
(iii) Persome
(iv) Marie’s mother
Answer:
(i) Mere Gringoire

(b) Why did she send Jean to the Bishop?
(i) so that he could pray for her.
(ii) as she knew that he was a generous person
(iii) as she was a greedy woman
(iv) as she was a poor woman
Answer:
(ii) as she knew that he was a generous person

(C) I offered to take her in here for a day or two, but she seemed to think it might distress you.
(a) The Bishop wanted to take Mere Gringoire in because .
(i) she was sick.
(ii) she had no money.
(iii) she was unable to pay the rent of her house.
(iv) she was a close friend of Persome.
Answer:
(iii) she was unable to pay the rent of her house.

(b) Persome would be distressed on Mere Gringoire’s being taken in because .
(i) she did not want to help anyone.
(ii) she felt that Mere Gringoire was taking undue advantage of the Bishop.
(iii) she was a self-centred person.
(iv) she would be put to a great deal of inconvenience.
Answer:
(ii) she felt that Mere Gringoire was taking undue advantage of the Bishop.

Question 8.
The term irony refers to a discrepancy, or disagreement, of some sort. The discrepancy can be between what someone says and what he or she really means or verbal irony. The discrepancy can be between a situation thq| one would logically anticipate or that would seem appropriate and the situation that actually develops or situational irony. The discrepancy can even be between the facts known to a character and the facts known to us, the readers or audience or dramatic irony. Working in groups of four complete the following table. Find instances of irony from the play and justify them.

Extract Justification
I believe you want to convert me; save my soul, don’t you call it? Well, it’s no good………. see? I don’t want any damned religion.
● ________________________________
●_________________________________
Later, the convict says, “its a queer thing to ask, but-could you, would you bless me before I go.”
●______________________________
●______________________________
● Why the devil do you leave the window unshuttered and the door unbarred so that anyone can come in? ’
●__________________________________
●__________________________________
If the door had been barred the convict couldn’t have entered the house.
______________________________
●______________________________
● My mother gave them to me on………………………. on her death bed just after you were bom, and…………….. and she asked me to keep them in remembrance of her, so I would like to keep them.
● _______________________________
● _______________________________
Later he hands the convict the candlesticks and tells him to start a new life.
● _________________________
● __________________________

Answer:

Extract Justification
I believe you want to convert me; save my soul, don’t you call it? Well, it’s no good………. see? I don’t want any damned religion.
● Stay, my son, you have forgotten your property.
●    I was sentenced to ten years in the prison hulks, ten years in HelL
Later, the convict says, “it’s a queer thing to ask, but-could you, would you bless me before I go. ”
● The situation becomes ironical because earlier Bishop teUs Persome, “I don’t want to sdl them.”
● It is ironical that the prison which should reform a person has turned into hell for him.
● Why the devil do you leave the window unshuttered and the door unbarred so that anyone can come in? ’
●  They feed you inhelL When you escape from it you starve.
● They caught me. I pleaded to them. I told them why I stole, but they laughed at me.
If the door had been barred the convict couldn’t have entered the house.
● It is quite ironical that one is fed in hell but starves when comes out of it● It is quite sad that the police can be an instrument of repression and blind to human misery.
● My mother gave them to me on on her death bed just after you were bom, and…………. and she asked me to keep them in remembrance of her, so I would like to keep them. ’
● this gentleman is my very good friend.
● You are like a child.
Later he hands the convict the candlesticks and tells him to start a new life.
●  It is ironical that the Bishop calls the convict a friend who steals his candlesticks.
● It is ironical that child-like innocence of the Bishop saves the convict

Question 9.
Identify the situations which can be termed as the turning points in the convict’s life.
Answer:

  1. The most important situation in the life of the convict was the bad phase of his life. It was a bad year. He was out of job and had no money. His wife was ill and dying. He had to steal to buy food for her and was arrested. He was sentenced to imprisonment for ten years. It was the turning point in his life.
  2. The convict was badly treated in the jail. He was chained up like a wild animal. He was lashed like a hound. He was fed on filth and was covered with vermin. He had to remain in such a harsh condition for ten years. Finally, he managed to escape. But alas! he was not a man but just like a wild beast. The ill-treatment of the jail employees proved a turning point in the convict’s life.
  3. His meeting with the Bishop and the hospitality he received at his (Bishop’s) cottage, softened him a little but still he stole his candlesticks.
  4. The Bishop saved the convict by telling the police that the silver candlesticks were given to the convict by him as a gift. It was the point which transformed him and he became a “man” again. Finally, he was blessed by the Bishop.

Question 10.
The convict is the product of the society he lived in, both in terms of the suffering that led him to steal a loaf of bread, as well as the excessive sentence he received as punishment for his “crime”. He was imprisoned for stealing money to buy food for his sick wife, this filled with despair, hopelessness, bitterness and anger at the injustice of it all.
Conduct a debate in the class (in groups) on the following topic. Instruction for conducting a debate (and the use of appropriate language) are given in the unit ‘Children’ of the Main Course Book.
‘Criminals are wicked and deserve punishment ’
Answer:
Respected President and Dear Friends!
They say hate the sin and not the sinner. How did the convict in the story become a “convict”? He was a man like us once. He had a wife. Then suddenly, things changed for the worse. He was out of job. His wife fell ill. She was starving and dying. He stole for food, caught and sentenced to ten years in prison.

Sir, do we think the punishment he received justified his crime? He was not a seasoned criminal. He had no previous record of stealing. A poor man out of job and his wife ill and dying. What would he do? Let me ask it the other way round: What will we do in these circumstances?

The laws are to punish the guilty and not to punish the victims of circumstances, disease and poverty. The prisons are to reform the criminals. Sir, certainly, they are not the slaughter houses. They can’t be turned into little ‘hells’ where prisoners are fed on filth and tortured. I personally feel, and all of you will agree with me, that such a cruel punishment for such a petty offence only makes a person a hard-hearted criminal like the convict.

Question 11.
The convict goes to Paris, sells the silver candlesticks and starts a business. The business prospers and he starts a reformatory for ex-convicts. He writes a letter to the Bishop telling him of this reformatory and seeks his blessings.
As the convict, Jean Valjean, write the letter to the Bishop:
Answer:
Jean Valjean Reformatory
Paris
20th March, 20XX
Venerable Father,
Faith can move mountains. You blessed me and I got a new life. I became a ‘man’ again. I went to Paris to start a new life. I sold the silver candlesticks and got a good amount to start life afresh. I invested the money in business and it made me a prosperous man. With the money earned, I started a reformatory for ex-convicts. They say hate the sin but never the sinner. Everyone is gifted with a human heart. Feelings of compassion, pity and sympathy are never dead in man. They irihy hibernate for a period of time. But someone like you can rekindle them. Even the hardest of criminal can be transformed into a ‘man’ again. The reformatory’s main focus is to arouse human kindness, sympathy and compassion for our fellow beings. We make them earn money through various handicrafts and cottage trades. Every evening all of them gather for prayers and moral lessons. Fortunately, there has been no major hurdles in our campaign so far. We have decided to invite you on the annual function of the reformatory. I hope you will oblige all of us by your noble presence and bless us to achieve our aim.
Yours sincerely
JeanValejean

Question 12.
The play is based on an incident in novelist Victor Hugo’s ‘Les Miserables.’ You may want to read the novel to get a better idea of the socio-economic conditions of the times and how people lived. Another novel that may interest you is Charles Dickens’ ‘A Tale of Two Cities. ’
Divide yourselves into two groups in the class and read a book each. Later you may want to share your views of the book each group selected. Select an incidentfrom the novel to dramatise and present before the class.
Answer:
A Classroom Activity.

Reference To Context

Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow:
Question 1.
“Mere Gringoire indeed! Mere Gringoire! What, the old witch who lives at the top of the hill, and who says she is bedridden because she is too lazy to do any work? And what did Mere Gringoire want with the money, pray?” (Page 115)
(а) Why is Persome angry at Mere Gringoire?
(b`) Why does Mere Gringoire pretend to be bedridden, according to Persome?
(c) Find a word from the extract having same meaing as ‘confined to bed’.
Answer:
(a) Persome is angry at Mere Gringoire because her brother, the Bishop has sold the beautiful salt cellars only to help her with money.
(b) According to Persome, Mere Gringoire pretends to be bedridden because she is too lazy to do any work.
(c) Bedridden.

Question 2.
Oh, mon Dieu! it is hopeless, hopeless. We shall have nothing left. His estate is sold, his savings have gone. His furniture, everything. Were it not for my little dot we should starve! And now my beautiful-beautiful (sob) salt cellars. Ah, it is too much, too much. (She breaks down crying.) (Page 115)
(a) Who says the situation is hopeless and why?
(b) What saved them from starving?
(c) Find a word in the extract having same meaning as ‘Property’.
Answer:
(a) Persome, Bishop’s sister feels that her brother’s actions have brought them in a hopeless
situation. He has sold his estate, furniture and spent all his savings. They have nothing left now. .
(b) Persome thinks that the little dowry that she had helped them from starving.
(c) Estate.

Question 3.
“Yes, or meat off the floor, I suppose. Oh, it’s coming to that. And as for that old wretch, Mere Gringoire, I wonder she had the audicity to send here again. The last time I saw her I gave her such a talking to that it ought to have had some effect.” (Page 116)
(a) Explain: “Oh, it’s coming to that”.
(b) What wrong did the ‘old wretch’ Mere Gringoire do according to Persome?
(c) What did Persome do when she met Mere Gringoire last time?
Answer:
(a) The Bishop had sold the beautiful silver salt cellars and now suggests eating salt out of China. Persome gets angry and taunts him that they can eat meat off the floor. Things have come to such a hopeless situation.
(b) The ‘old wretch’, Mere Gringoire had the audacity to send a message to the Bishop for helping her with money.
(c) The last time when Persome met Mere Gringoire, she gave a piece of her mind to her. She asked her to mind her own business and not to harass the Bishop for nothing.

Question 4.
Good to you, yes! I should think so. I should like to know where you would be without me to look after you. The dupe of every idle scamp or lying old woman in the parish! (Page 116) lestions
(a) Who speaks these lines and to whom?
(b) What would happen if Persome doesn’t look after the Bishop?
(c) How would the Bishop become the ‘dupe of every idle scamp or lying old woman’ of the parish?
Answer:
(a) These lines are spoken by Persome to her brother, the Bishop.
(b) Persome feels that if she doesn’t look after her brother, he will be miserable and become an easy target for cheats and liars.
(c) Without Personae’s control, the Bishop would become an easy target for cheats and liars in the parish. They would exploit his generosity to serve their own interests.

Question 5.
it down!!! (The Bishop sits smiling.) None of that, my friend! I’m too old a bird to be caught wfth chaff. You would ask your sister for the keys, would you? A likely story! You would rouse the house too. Eh? Ha!! ha! A good joke truly. Come, where is the food? I want no keys. I have a wolf inside me tearing at my entrails, tearing me; quick, tell me; where the food is. (Page 118)
(a) Why does the Convict say that he is too old a bird to be caught with chaff?
(b) Wliat does the Convict want the Bishop to be asked from his sister?
(c) Explain: “I have a wolf inside me tearing my entrails”.
Answer:
(a) The Convict reminds the Bishop that he is not a novice but clever and mature. He is not to be ‘caught with chaff’ or small temptations.
(b) The Convict wants the Bishop to ask his sister to handover the keys to him.
(c) It means that the Convict is very hungry and can’t afford to be hungry any more.

Question 6.
Suffer? (puzzled) suffered? My God, yes. (Drinks) But that’s a long time ago. Ha! ha! That was
when I was a man. Now I’m not a man; now I’m a number; number 15729, and I’ve lived in Hell for tern years. (Page 120)
(a) When was the Convict “a man?”
(b) Why was he reduced to a number?
(c) Where’did he live in for ten years?
Answer:
(a) Before he was arrested and sent to jail, the Convict was a man with all human qualities.
(b) The hard life of the prison, the cruelties and tortures of the police took away all human qualities from him. He was reduced to a number and they never called him by his name.
(c) The Convict led’ most hellish life in prison for ten long years.

Question 7.
They caught me. I pleaded to them, I told them why I stole, but they laughed at me, and I was sentenced to ten years in the prison hulks (pause), ten years in Hell. The night I was sentenced, the gaoler told me—told me Jeanette was dead. (Sobs with fury) Ah, damn them, damn them. God curse them all. (Page 121)
(a) Why did the police arrest the Convict?
(b) Did they listen to his pleadings? What did they do with him?
(c) Find a word in the extract opposite in meaning to ‘praise’.
Answer:
(a) They arrested the Convict because he was stealing to buy food for his hungry wife.
(b) No, they didn’t listen to his pleadings and he was sent to jail for stealing.
(c) Curse.

Question 8.
“Yes, to starve. They feed you in Hell, but when you escape from it you starve. They were hunting me everywhere and I had no passport, no name. So I stole again. I stole these rags. I stole my food daily. I slept in the woods, in bams, anywhere. I dare not ask for work, I dare not go into a town to beg, so I stole, and they have made me what I am, they have made me a thief. God curse them all.” (Page 121)
(a) What is the difference of being ‘in the Hell’ and out of it?
(b) Why did the Convict steal?
(c) Why does the Convict curse them all?
Answer:
(a) When you are inside the prison, the police at least give you some food to eat. But when you are outside it, you starve.
(b) The Convict had no money. He needed food and rags. He was without any work. Hence, he had to steal for buying food and clothes.
(c) The Convict curses them all as they made him a thief and a beast from a man.

Question 9.
Tell you about it? Look here, I was a man once. I’m a beast now, and they made me what I am. They chained me up like a wild animal, they lashed me like a hound. I fed on filth, I was covered, with vermin, I slept on boards, and I complained. Then they lashed me again. For ten years, ten years. Oh God! They took away my name, they took away my soul, and they gave me a devil in its place. (Page 121)
(a) The speaker was a man once but he is a beast now. How?
(b) Who made him what he was?
(c) Describe the tortures and sufferings the speaker had to go in prison.
Answer:
(a) Before he was arrested and put in prison, the Convict was a man with all human qualities. The jail-life has reduced him to a beast.
(b) The tortures of the police made him a beast and reduced him to what he was.
(c) The Convict was chained and lashed like an animal. He was fed on filth and covered with vermin and it continued for ten years.

Question 10.
You are going to try to convert me. Oh! ha! ha! That’s a good idea. Ha! ha! ha! No, no, Monseigneur the Bishop: I don’t want any of your Faith, Hope, and Charity-see? So anything you do for me you’re doing to the devil—understand? (defiantly) (Page 122)
(a) Who is going to convert and whom?
(b) What does the speaker want?
(c) Doing anything for him means ‘doing to the devil’. How?
Answer:
(a) The Convict says that the Bishop is trying to convert him to his Faith.
(b) The speaker doesn’t want any of the Bishop’s Faith, Hope and Charity.
(c) The Convict is no more a man but a beast. Hence, doing anything good to him means ‘doing to the devil’.

Question 11.
Worth hundreds I’ll warrant. If I had these turned into money they’d start me fair. Humph! The old boy’s fond of them too, said his mother gave him them. His mother, yes. They didn’t think of my mother when they sent me to Hell. He was kind to me too-but that’s a Bishop for except to be kind to you? Here, cheer up, my hearty, you’r getting soft. God! Wouldn’t my chain-mates laugh to see 15729 hesitating about collaring the plunder because he felt good. Good! Ha! ha! Oh, my God! Good! Ha! ha! 15729 getting soft. That’s a good one. Ha! ha! No, I’ll take his candlesticks and go. (Page 123)
(a) What and how will the candlesticks help the speaker to start fair in life again?
(b) Why doesn’t the speaker consider the fact that those candlesticks were given to the Bishop by his mother? Why does he steal them?
(c) Write the noun form of ‘warrant’.
Answer:
(a) The silver candlesticks could fetch a lot of money if they were sold. With that money the Convict could start his life afresh again.
(b) The Convict knows that the Bishop is very fond of the candlesticks as they were given to him by his mother. However, he doesn’t respect this fact. They didn’t care for his mother when he was sent to jail.
(c) Warranty.

Question 12.
“If you won’t tell the police, I will. I will not stand by and see you robbed. I know you are my brother and my Bishop, and the best man in all France; but you are a fool, I tell you, a child. I will not have your goodness abused, I shall go and inform die police.” (Page 124)
(a) Who is the speaker and why can’t she stand by and see him robbed?
(b) Why is the “best man in all France” a fool?
(c) How will she not have his goodness abused?
Answer:
(a) The speaker of these lines is Persome, the Bishop’s sister. She can’t stand by and let the Convict rob him of his silver candlesticks.
(b) The Bishop has all noble and human qualities in him to be the “best man in all France.” However, he is also a fool as he is an easy target of every cheat and liar in the Parish.
(c) Persome will not have the Bishop’s goodness abused by the Convict. She will go to inform the police about the theft.

Question 13.
“Yes, madam, we found this scoundrel slinking along the road, and as he would not give any account of himself we arrested him on suspicion. Holy Virgin, isn’t he strong and didn’t he struggle? While we were securing him these candlesticks fell out of his pockets.” (Page 124)
(a) Who is’ the ‘scoundrel’ being referred to here and who found him stealthily along the road?
(b) Why did the police arrest that ‘scoundrel’?
(c) What happened when they were seeming him?
Answer:
(a) The Convict who stole.the Bishop’s candlesticks is being referred to as a ‘scoundrel’ here. The police found him moving stealthily along the road.
(b) The police arrested that ‘scoundrel’ on suspicion. He failed to give any satisfactory account
of himself. ,
(c) When they were arresting him, the silver candlesticks that he stole from the Bishop’s house, fell down from his pocket.

Question 14.
Ah, thanks, thanks, Monseigneur. I—I—(He sobs.) Ah, I’m a fool, a child to cry, but somehow you have made me feel that—that it is just as if something had come into me—as if I were a man again and not a wild beast.
(a) Why does the speaker thank the Bishop? –
(b) What did the Bishop make the Convict feel?
(c) Why does the Convict feel as if he were a man again and not a beast?
Answer:
(a) The Convict thanks the Bishop for saving him from getting arrested and going to that hellish prison once again.
(b) The Convict felt as if he were a transformed man with human feelings.
(c) Because the Convict is no more a hardened and ferocious beast. He is sobbing like a child
and is filled with human feelings once more.

Question 15.
(Putting his hand on his shoulder). Always remember, my son, that this poor body is the Temple of the Living God.
(a) Who is speaking and to whom?
(b) Did the Convict still behave like a wild beast? What was the transformation?
(c) What final advice did the Bishop give to the Convict?
Answer:
(a) The Bishop is speaking to the Convict.
(b) No, the Convict was no more like a wild beast. He sobbed and behaved like a child.
(c) The Bishop advised the Convict that the poor body of man is the Temple of the Living God. Man must keep it chaste and pure by his noble actions.

ABOUT THE PLAY

‘The Bishop’s Candlesticks’ brings home the idea that no one is a born criminal. It shows how a good and humane treatment can bring out hidden goodness in a hardened criminal. The convict who enters the Bishop’s house demands food at the point of his knife. The Bishop remains calm and composed. He calls him ‘son’ and readily offers him food and wine and then a bed to sleep. In his conversation, the convict tells him how he stole out of a dire need to save his ailing and starving wife. He was sent to jail where ill-treatment made him a beast. When the Bishop leaves him to rest for the night, he decamps with the Bishop’s silver candlesticks. He is, however, caught and brought back to the Bishop. The Bishop gets him released by telling a lie to the police. He says that the candlesticks were his gift to his friend. When the police leaves, he actually gifts the candlesticks to the convict and shows him the way to Paris where he can start a new life. The convict falls on his knees and promises to become a good man again.

CHARACTERS

(i) The Bishop
In the play, the Bishop is an embodiment of all noble qualities. He is selfless and charitable. He often helps the poor and the needy. He sells his salt-cellars to enable an old, poor lady to pay off her rent. He is loving and affectionate, kind and generous. The convict tries to intimate him and demands food. He readily provides him food and shelter. The convict steals his silver candlesticks. The Bishop saves him by saying that he himself gave the candlesticks to him. He wins the heart of the convict by actually gifting the candlesticks to him. Thus, he proves to be an ideal priest.

(ii) The Convict
The convict in the play was once a normal human being. He fell on bad days and stole. He was sent to jail. In the jail he was treated so badly that he became a beast. When he escaped from jail, he had become inhuman. He has no faith in man’s goodness. He has no respect for society, religion or state.

However, he is essentially human. He has innate goodness which circumstances have concealed. The Bishop’s love and kindness overwhelns him. He regains his faith. The Bishop’s generosity reforms him totally and sets him on the right path. He is ready to lead a normal life of a good man.

REFERENCE TO CONTEXT QUESTIONS (SOLVED)

Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow :

Question 1:
Marie : Pardon, Madam, but I think it was for Mere Gringoire.
Persome : Mere Gringorie indeed. Mere Gringoire. What, the old witch who lives at the top of the hill, and who says she is bedridden because she is too lazy to do any work ? And what did Mere Gringoire want with the money, pray ?
(a) What was done for Mere Gringoire ?
(b) Why does Persome refer to Mere Gringoire as an old witch ?
(c) What does the extract reveal about Persome’s character ?                 (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
(a) The Bishop had to sell his salt-cellars to pay the house rent of Mere Gringoire.
(b) Persome does so as she feels Mere Gringoire is wicked and selfish woman.
(c) The extract reveals that Persome is short-tempered and narrow-minded. She is not generous like her brother.

Question 2:
You told him she was feeling poorly, did you ? And so my brother is to be kept out of his bed, and go without his supper because you told him she was feeling poorly. There’s gratitude for you !
(a) Who is ‘she’ in the above extract ?
(b) Who is the speaker’s brother and why was he kept out of bed ?
(c) Explain the line ‘there’s gratitude for you’.                                        (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
(a) ‘She’ in the extract is Mere Gringoire.
(b) The speaker’s brother is the Bishop. He was kept out of bed in order to help Mere Gringoire.
(c) Persome remarks ironically that Marie had paid her gratitude to the Bishop by making him help her mother in such a bad weather. She wants to say that she had proved to be ungrateful to the Bishop.

Question 3:
Bishop : That is why they are left open.
Convict: Well they are shut now!
Bishop (sighs) : For the first time in thirty years.
(a) Why were ‘they’ left open ?
(b) Why are they shut now ?
(c) Why weren’t they shut for thirty years ?
Answer:
(a) ‘They’ are doors and windows which were left open to welcome any person who came in.
(b) ‘They’ are shut now by the convict to prevent anybody else in the house.
(c) ‘They’ were not shut for thirty years to let anyone come at any time to see the Bishop.

Question 4:
Bishop : The knife, oh, well, you see, dear, perhaps he may have thought that 1-1 had sold ours, (laughs gently)
Persome : Brother, I am frightened. He glares at us like a wild beast (aside to him).
(а) What is the tone of the Bishop in the above extract ?
(b) Why is Persome frightened ?
(c) Why is‘he’being compared to a wild beast?                                    (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
(a) The Bishop’s tone is kind and gentle.
(b) Persome is frightened because the convict’s looks are very cruel and dangerous.
(c) ‘He’ is being compared to a beast as there is no human feeling on his face. Moreover, his way of eating is just like any beast’s.

Question 5:
None of that, my friend ! I’m too old a bird to be caught with chaff. You would ask your sister for the keys, would you ? A likely story ! You would rouse the house too. Eh? Ha! A good joke truly. Come, where is the food. I want no keys. I have a wolf inside me tearing at my entrails, tearing me; quick, tell me where the food is,
(а) What does the convict mean when he says I’m too old a bird to be caught with chaff ?
(b) Why does the convict say, ‘I have a wolf inside me’ ?
(c) Why does the convict think it is ‘a good joke’.                               (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
(а)  The convict wants to say that he is too experienced to be duped in by cheap tricks.
(b)  The convict says so as he is very hungry and can tear anything apart like a hungry wolf.
(c) The convict thinks it to be a good joke that the Bishop will ask his sister to bring keys and she will go out to seek help.

Question 6:
I -I didn’t believe there was any good in the world One does’t when one has been in Hell, but somehow, I -I know your’re good and, and it’s a queer thing to ask but, but could you, would you bless me before I go ? 1-1 think it would help me.
(a) Why didn’t the speaker believe that there was any good left in the world ?
(b) How did the speaker know about hell ?
(c) Why did he seek the Bishop’s blessing ?                                         (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
(а)  The speaker believed so as he had been ill-treated and tortured all those years for a petty crime.
(b)  The speaker knew about hell as he had been in prison where conditions were as bad as in hell.
(c) He sought the Bishop’s blessings so that he could begin his life anew like a normal human being.

Question 7:
Convict: Ah, thanks, thanks, Monseigneur. I, I (he sobs) Ah ! Trn a fool, a child to cry, but somehow you have made me feel that, that it is just as if something had come in to me, as if I were a man again and not a wild beast.
Bishop (putting his hand on his shoulder) : Always remember, my son, that this poor body is the Temple of the Living God.
(а) Why was the convict crying like a child ?
(b) How is the speaker ‘a man again’ ?
(c) Explain the phrase ‘the poor body is the temple of the living God’.   (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
(a) The convict was crying like a child as he felt guilty and remorseful. He realized he had been on the wrong track.
(b) The speaker is a man again as he has regained his faith in God and humanity.
(c) The human body is a sacred place where God dwells.

Question 8:
‘My dear, there is so much suffering in the world, and I can do so little…………. ’
(a) Who speaks these lines and to whom ?
(b) What do you learn about him from the given line?
(c) What do you mean by ‘suffering’ ?
Answer:
(a) The Bishop speaks these lines to his sister Persome.
(b) The Bishop is extremely generous, selfless and kind-hearted.
(c) ‘pain’.

Question 9:
‘One must do a great deal for the devil in order to do a little for God’.
(а) Who is the speaker ?
(b) What does he want to say ?
(c) Give the meaning of the word ‘devil’.
Answer:
(a) The Bishop is the speaker.
(b) He wants to say that one has to do a lot to remove wickedness (devil) in doing a bit of service to God.
(c) ‘a wicked being’ (satan).

Question 10:
‘Look-here, why the devil are you-ki-kind to me ? What do you want V
(а) Who is the speaker ?
(b) Why is he so confused ?
(c) What has he actually expected ?
Answer:
(а) The convict is the speaker.
(b) He is baffled at the kind behaviour of his host, the Bishop.
(e) He has actually expected to be treated badly.

Question 11:
You have your soul, to lose, my son; it is of more value than my heart’.
(а) Why does the Bishop call the convict ‘my son’ ?
(b) What tells you that he is a fearless person ?
(c) What does he want to do ?
Answer:
(а)  The Bishop calls the convict ‘my son’ as he would call anyone else. In his eyes, he is as good as any other human being.
(b)   He does not care for his life. He is not afraid of being killed by the convict.
(c) He wants to reform the convict by showing him the right path through love and compassion.

Question 12:
You told him she was feeling poorly, did you ? And so my brother is to be kept out of his bed, and go without his supper because you told him she was feeling poorly”
(а)   Who is ‘she’ referred to in the above lines ?
(b)   What is the tone of the speaker ?
(c) Explain ‘kept out of his bed’.
Answer:
(а) ‘She’ referred to in the above lines is Marie’s mother.
(b) The speaker (Persome) here speaks in a reproachful tone.
(c) ‘Did not sleep and take rest’.

Question 13:
If you call out you are a dead man !
(а) What was the Bishop doing when the convict entered ?
(b)What warning did the convict give the Bishop ?
(c) What does‘call out’mean ?
Answer:
(a) He was reading then.
(b) The convict warned the Bishop that if he called for help he would be killed.
(c) ‘Shout’.

Question 14:
“I believe you want to convert me; save my soul, don’t you call it ? Well, it’s no good-see ? I don’t want any damned religion, and as for the church – bah ! / hate the church.”
(a) What does the convict resent ?
(b) Why does he hate the church ?
(c) Give the meaning of the word ‘damned’
Answer:
(a) The convict resents the Bishop’s talking of saving his soul.
(b) He hates the church for even the church did not come to his rescue.
(c) ‘accursed’.

Question 15:
‘Ah, that is hard, very hard, I – He might have left me those. They were all I had.’
(a) Who speaks these words and to whom ?
(b) What does‘those’refer to here ?
(c) What does ‘hard’ mean in the context ?
Answer:
(a) The Bishop speaks these words to his sister Persome.
(b) Those’ refers to the silver candlesticks stolen by the convict.
(c) ‘difficult’.

Question 16:
Yes, to starve. They feed you in Hell, but when you escape from it you starve.’
(a) Who is the speaker ? Who are ‘they’ ?
(b) Why has he come to ‘starving* ?
(c) Give the meaning of‘starve’.
Answer:
(a) The convict is the speaker. ‘They’ refers to jail authorities.
(b) He is out of jail, but he has no work and no money. He cannot do work for fear of police. So he has come to the state of starvation.
(c)‘to die of hunger’.

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (SOLVED)

Answer each of the following questions in 30-40 words ?

Question 1:
What makes Persome lost her temper ?
Answer:
Persome feels irritated that the Bishop has gone out in the extreme cold. When she learns from the maid, Marie, that he has gone to see Marie’s ailing mother, she loses her temper.

Question 2:
What grouses does Persome have about her brother ?
Answer:
Persome is the Bishop’s sister. The Bishop is in the habit of helping all who seek his help. He has sold his estate, his furniture and many other valuable things to help the poor. Persome who feels concerned about his future naturally has grouses in her mind about this kind of behaviour on his part.

Question 3:
What comes as a shock to Persome ?
Answer:
Persome is already pained at her brother’s excessive magnanimity. When she learns about his selling of his silver salt-cellars to help an old lady to pay her rent, she is shocked.

Question 4:
How and when does the convict enter the Bishop’s room ?
Answer:
It is almost midnight. The Bishop is reading in his room. A convict enters his room stealthily. It is not difficult for anyone to enter the Bishop’s house as its doors and windows are never shut.

Question 5:
How does the convict behave when he encounters the Bishop ?
Answer:
The convict enters the Bishop’s room. He seizes the Bishop from behind and demands something to eat at once. He threatens to kill him if he raises an alarm.

Question 6:
How is the convict treated by the Bishop ?
Answer:
The Bishop treats the convict as if he were his guest. He calls him ‘son’ and tries to calm him down. He asks his sister to bring some food for the guest. He offers him bed for rest.

Question 7:
Why was the convict caught and imprisoned ?
Or
‘Now I’m not a man, now I’m a number.’ How had the speaker become a number ?
Answer:
The convict’s wife was ill and starving. He had no money and work at that time. He had to steal to feed his sick wife and was thus caught and imprisoned. In the prison, he was given a number. He suffered there so much that he had forgotten his name. He had been reduced to a mere number.

Question 8:
Why does the convict call the prison a hell ?
Answer:
The convict recalls his days in the prison which was nothing short of Hell. He was chained like an animal. He was fed on filth. He was made to sleep on boards. He suffered from vermins. He was often beaten mercilessly. He became a beast.

Question 9:
Why does the convict show contempt for the Bishop’s good behaviour ?
Answer:
The convict was in the prison for ten years. He was treated very badly. He lost faith in God and humanity. So he has nothing but contempt for any good behaviour shown by the Bishop.

Question 10:
Who was Jeanette ? What was the cause of her death ?
Answer:
Jeanette was the convict’s wife. She fell seriously ill. The convict was out of work then. He had no money to feed and treat her. When he stole and got arrested, she died of starvation.

Question 11:
Do you justify the Bishop’s behaviour in not handing over the convict to the police when he decamps with his silver candlesticks ? Give reason.
Answer:
Had the Bishop handed the convict over to the police, the convict would never have got another chance to reform himself. As the Bishop wants to give him a chance to start a new life he saves him from the police.

Question 12:
What brings about real transformation in the convict ?
Answer:
When the Bishop gives the convict his silver candlesticks as a gift before he leaves for Paris, the convict is speechless. He kneels himself down before the Bishop and weeps. He feels that he has become a ‘man’ once again. His tears are a symbol of his transformation.

Question 13:
Do you think the punishment given to the convict was justified ? Why/ Why not ? Why is the convict eager to reach Paris ?
Answer:
The punishment given to the convict for a minor crime was too much and was unjustified. He did not commit a murder or indulge in any other major crime. His circumstances had forced him to steal. No, it.
He should have been given a light punishment instead of ten years in a hell­like jail.

Question 14:
Before leaving, the convict asks the Bishop to bless him. What brought about this change in him ?
Answer:
The convict had lost all faith in goodness. The Bishop’s love, kindness and generosity bring about a remarkable change in him. He feels as if he were a man once again. He regains his faith in God. So he asks the Bishop to bless him.

Question 15:
Identify the situations which can be termed as the turning points in the convict’s life ?
Answer:
There are many situations in the play which can be termed as the turning points in the convict’s life. He stole to feed his sick wife. His consequent arrest on the charge of stealing was the first significant turning point in his life. His encounter with the kind, noble and generous Bishop was another turning point in his life. Again, his arrest for having stolen the Bishop’s candlesticks and the Bishop’s magnanimity and kindness in saving him from the police and gifting him his candlesticks are the other turning points in the convict’s life.

Question 16:
How does the Bishop’s attitude touch the convict ?
Answer:
The Bishop’s attitude towards the convict is extremely amiable, kind and geneous. He calls the convict his ‘son’ and ‘friend’ – the words the convict has forgotten in his life. He offers him food and shelter. Even when the convict decamps with his cherished candlesticks, he saves him from the clutches of the police. He even gifts the candlesticks to the convict and helps him escape to Paris. His attitude moves the heart of the convict. The convict feels as if he were a human being again. He sees a ray of hope in his life.

VALUE-BASED LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS (SOLVED)

Question 1:
‘It is easy to close the doors but difficult to open a window.’ Comment with reference to the play ‘The Bishop’s Candlesticks’. (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
The statement -‘It is easy to close the doors but difficult to open a window’- is true. It is easy to close the doors implies that man can easily live selfishly; he can easily shut doors on others and live a life of a recluse, as some religious people do. It is not difficult to dislike or hate others. But to open a window for others is not easy. To go out of one’s way to show the right path ‘ or to help other is indeed a difficult but divine task.
The Bishop in the play ‘The Bishop’s Candlesticks’ keeps his doors and windows literally open for needy persons. He does everything possible to help the poor. But the way he treats the convict is something uncommon. He goes beyond the call of his duty. When his beloved candlesticks are stolen, he finds it difficult to forgive the thief, but very soon he realizes his mistake. By gifting the candlesticks he touches the raw nerves of a hardened criminal. He opens a window at the back of his house for the convict to go to his destination and start a new life. What a noble act !

Question 2:
‘Minds are open only when hearts are open. Keeping this in mind, the Bishop’s house had unshuttered windows and unbarred doors for thirty years. Discuss.       (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
It is unthinkable that one could keep the doors and windows of one’s house open for thirty long years. Only a really fearless hermit can do it. The Bishop keeps the doors and windows open so that the poor and the needy could come anytime to his house. It reveals that his mind and heart are open. He is so generous and magnanimous that he attaches no importance to any material thing. He sells his estate, his silver salt-cellars and many others valuable things to help the poor. Though he cherishes his silver candlesticks, he readily gifts them to the convict.
Earlier in the play, Persome reminds the Bishop how people take undue advantage of his generosity. Even the convict mocks at him for leaving his windows and doors open. But the Bishop does not have a second thought at what he does.

Question 3:
Love, compassion and forgiveness are great human values which we must try to imbibe. Discuss it in the context of the play ‘The Bishop’s Candlesticks.’
Answer:
There is no doubt that love, compassion and forgiveness are great human virtues. We should try to imbibe them in our day-to-day life. We should learn to love all. We should be compassionate towards the weak. We should forgive all those who offend or harm us in any way.The Bishop in the play ‘The Bishop’s Candlesticks’ is a true Christian who has imbibed in him the divine virtues of love, compassion and forgiveness. He loves one and all without any discrimination. He treats even the convict as his friend and guest. The convict proves to be ungrateful by stealing the silver candlesticks of a person who offered him food and shelter and comforted him. However, the Bishop forgives him easily. Rather he gifts the candlesticks to him so that he may start a new life. This is what we sould do in our life, though it is not an easy task.

Question 4:
The prison is meant for reformation, not punishment. Justify this statement with reference to the lesson ‘The Bishop’s Candlesticks’.(CBSE 2014)
Answer:
The prison is meant for reformation. That is why, it is often called ‘Sudhar Ghar’. Here the prisoners should be treated in such a way that they realize their mistakes and reform themselves. They should not be treated like animals as was done in the prison which the convict calls ‘Hell’. The convict had to steal out of compulsion. When he was in the prison, he was given a number. He was fed on filth. He had to sleep on boards. He was beaten mercilessly. They turned him into a hardened criminal. He lost faith in humanity. He began to hate everybody. When he escaped from the prison, he was not a reformed person. He again stole-this time the silver candlesticks of a really noble person, the Bishop.
If he was changed man towards the end, it was due to the Bishop’s extremely kind and humane treatment. The Bishop changed his heart by his kindness and generosity.

Question 5:
‘I’m a number, number 15729’. An individual’s human identity is being degraded to a mere number.
What does your conscience tell you about this ? (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
The convict became a victim of circumstances. He was once a normal human being. He led a poor life with his wife, Jeanette, in a little cottage. She was ill and starving. He was out of work and had no money to buy food for his wife. So he stole money to buy her food and was caught by the police. He tried to explain to the policemen why he had stolen. But they laughed at him and he was sentenced to ten years in the prison hulks. The convict was treated like a beast. He was tortured and beaten. The policemen chained him like a wild beast and lashed him like a hound. He was fed on filth and was covered with vermin. He slept on the board and when he complained, he was lashed again. They treated him cruelly and took away his soul and made him a devil. They took away his name. Now he was not a man; he was a number; number 15729 and he had lived in Hell for ten long years. He lost faith in the essential goodness of man. As for the church he began to hate church. He was so fed up with the society that he told the Bishop that he did not want any of his Faith, Hope and Charity. He considered himself a devil and told the Bishop that his efforts to convert him would fail. He lost belief in religion. He had no identity, no faith in humanity, no faith in church and religion.
Thus, a man who is brutally treated loses his identity and conscience. But it is the society which is at fault in making him what he is.

Question 6:
In the end realization dawns upon the convict that he is a man again and not a wild beast. Who do you think is responsible for this change in the convict and what qualities would you associate with him ? (CBSE 2014)
Answer:
The convict, who had been brutally treated in jail for ten long years, escaped, but only to starve. One night he entered the Bishop’s room and demanded food at the point of knife. The Bishop was very kind, generous and loving towards him. He gave him cold pie, bottle of wine and some bread. He also gave him bed to sleep. But the convict stole his candlesticks and ran away. He was arrested by the police and brought to Bishop’s house. The Bishop pleasantly surprised the convict and the sergeant by saying that the convict was his very good friend. The Bishop told the sergeant that he had supped with him the previous night and that he had given him the candlesticks. He called the convict his ‘son’. So unlike the police and the rest of the society, the Bishop treated him gently and kindly. He called him son and friend. Such affectionate words were not heard by the convict in his life. The Bishop offered him food, shelter and saved him from the clutches of police. The kindest act that the Bishop did was to gift the prized silver candlesticks to him and suggested him a safe passage to Paris. Bishop’s kindness, benevolence and love helped the convict to rediscover his innocence and goodness. In fact, he rediscovered his essential human self. Finally, he learnt from the Bishop that the body is the Temple of the Living God. In this way, the Bishop reformed the convict.

Question 7:
The Convict goes to Paris, sells the silver candlesticks and starts a business. The business prospers and he starts a reformatory for ex­convicts. He writes a letter to the Bishop telling him of this reformatory and seeks his blessings.
As the convict, Jean Valjean, write the letter to Bishop.
Answer:
J.V. Reformatory Paris
16 March, 20…
Venerable Father
You will be delighted to know that your ‘son’ has at last found his feet. The candlesticks that you gifted me did wonders for me. I sold the candlesticks and opened a workshop. By the grace of God and with your blessings, my business flourished and I earned a lot of money. I am now a happy and respectable person in the society. I have recently opened a reformatory for ex­convicts. My aim is to enable the ex-convicts to lead a life of dignity and respect. They work and lead a comfortable life. Learned men are invited for weekly discourses on religious and moral matters. Their discourses leave a great impact on them.
I seek your blessings.
Yours sincerely
Jean Valjean

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