Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 5
Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of _________ .
Goat and sheep
When the high mountains were covered with snow, the herds were grazed in the _________ .
The Gaddi shepherds belong to _________ .
The Gaddi shepherds spent their winter in _________ .
The low hills of Siwalik range
Why were wasteland rules enacted by the colonial officials ?
To turn the uncultivated lands into cultivable lands.
Africans depend on some form of pastoral activity for their _________ .
The Maasai cattle herders live primarily in _________ .
Name the pastoral communities of the mountains.
Gujjars, Gaddis, Bhotiyas and Sherpas
The word Maasai means _________ .
In 1885, Massailand was cut into half with an international boundary between :
Kenya and Tanganyika
Give one advantage of changing grazing lands into cultivated farms by British in India.
Land revenue was one of the main sources of income, by expanding cultivation it would increase its revenue collection.
Large areas of grazing land in East Africa were turned into _________ .
When did European imperial powers divide Africa into different colonies?
Maasai society was divided into two social categories _________ .
Elders and warriors.
What kind of permit was given to the pastoralists by the forest department?
The permit specified the periods in which these pastoralists could live legally within a forest. If they overstayed they were made to pay fines.
The Criminal Tribes Act, 1871 classified the communities of craftsman, traders and pastoralists as _________ .
What was the status of the Massai pastoralists in pre-colonial times ?
They had dominated their agricultural neighbours both economically and politically.
Who were called “The Elders’ in Maasai society?
The Elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes.
What are the main occupations of Raikas?
Raikas combined a range of different activities-cultivation, trade, and herding to make their living.
Who were ‘Dhangars’ ?
‘Dhangars’ were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.
What are the major activities of the pastoral communities of Africa?
They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys. They sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool.
What kind of duty was assigned to the warriors?
They defended the community and organised cattle raids.
Where is the Serengeti National Park located?
The Serengeti National Park is in Tanzania.
Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
Who are nomadic pastoralists ?
- Nomads are people who do not live at one place but move from one area to another to earn their living.
- In many parts of India, we can see nomadic pastoralists on the move with their herds of goats and sheep, or camels and cattle.
- They move place to place in search of new pastures for their herds of goats and sheep.
What happened to the animal’s stock when pasture lands were turned into cultivated lands ?
As pasturelands disappeared under the plough, the existing animal stock had to feed on whatever grazing land remained. This led to continuous intensive grazing of these pastures. Usually nomadic pastoralists grazed their animals in one area and moved to another area. These pastoral movements allowed time for the natural restoration of vegetation growth. When restrictions were imposed on pastoral movements, grazing lands came to be continuously used and the quality of pastures declined. This in turn created a further shortage of forage for animals and the deterioration of animal stock. Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcities and famines.
What do you know about the lifestyle of Gujjars of Garhwal and Kumaun ?
- In Garhwal and Kumaun, the Gujjar cattle herders came to the dry forests of the bhabar in the winter, and went to the high meadows, the Bugyals, in summer.
- Many of them were originally from Jammu and came to the UP hills in the 19th century’ in search of good pastures.
- This pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures was typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas.
Describe the life of pastoralists inhabiting the mountains of India.
(a) The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir, the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh, the Gujjar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaun, the Bhotiyas, the Sherpas and Kinnauris move annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds governed by the cycle of seasonal movements.
(b) They adjust their movements to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures in different places. When pastures are exhausted or unstable in one place they move their herds to new areas.
Discuss the main features of the pastoral nomads of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, we found the dry central plateau covered with stone and grass inhabited by cattle, goat and sheep herders.
- The Gollas herded cattle and the Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. They lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land, engaged in a variety of petty trades and took care of their herbs.
- The pastoral nomads of these two southern states lived near the forests, cultivated small patches of land, engaged themselves in different petty trades and took care of the herds.
Name the pastoral communities of Africa. Where are they found ? What are their occupations ?
- The Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana are some of the pastoral communities of Africa.
- Most of them are found in semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rainfed agriculture is difficult.
- They raise cattle, camels, goats, etc. and sell their products like milk and meat. Others earn their living through trade and transport. Some of then combine pastoral activity with agriculture while still others do a variety of odd jobs to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings.
Under colonial rule, what were the changes in the life of pastoralists ?
Following were the changes that took place in the life of pastoralists under the colonial rule :
- Under colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically. Their grazing grounds shrank.
- The revenue they had to pay was increased.
- Their movements were regulated.
- Their agricultural stock declined and their trades and crafts were adversely affected. (Any three points)
What factors had to be kept in mind by the pastoralists in order to survive ?
Following factors had to be kept in mind by pastoralists in order to survive :
- They had to judge how longtfie herds could stay in one area and know where they could find water and pasture.
- They needed to calculate the timing of their movements, and ensure that they could move through different territories.
- They also had to set up a relationship with farmers on the way, so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil.
- They also had to combine a range of different activities-cultivation, trade and herding-to make their living. (Any three points)
How did the Forest Acts change the life of pastoralists ?
The Forest Acts change the life of pastoralists in the following ways :
(a) Forest Acts were enacted to protect and preserve forests for timber which was of commercial importance.
(b) They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle. Even in the areas they were allowed entry, their movement were regulated.
(c) They were issued permits which monitored their entry into and exit from forests. They could not stay in the forests as much as they liked because the permit specified the periods in which they could be legally within a forest. If they overstayed they were liable to fives.
What was the impact of frequent drought on the pasture lands of Maasai community ?
Drought affects the life of pastoralists everywhere. When rains fail, and pastures are dry, cattle are likely to starve unless they can be moved to areas where forage is available. But from the colonial period, the Maasai were bound down to a fixed area, confined within a reserve, and prohibited from moving in search of pastures. They were cut off from the best grazing lands and forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts.
Since they could not shift their cattle to places where pastures were available, large numbers of Maasai cattle died of starvation and disease in these years of drought. An enquiry in 1930 showed that the Maasai in Kenya possessed 720,000 cattle, 820,000 sheep and 171,000 donkeys. In just two years of severe drought, 1933 and 1934, over half the cattle in the Maasai Reserve died.
Who were Banjaras ?
- Banjaras were another well-known group of graziers. Banjaras were nomadic.
- They were to be found in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
- In search of good pastureland for their cattle, they moved over long distances, selling plough cattle and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and fodder.
What kind of life did the chiefs appointed by the colonial government lead ?
The chiefs appointed by the colonial government often accumulated wealth over time. They had a regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land. They lent money to poor neighbours who needed cash to pay taxes. Many of them began living in towns and became involved in trade. Their wives and children stayed back in the villages to look after the animals. These chiefs managed to survive the devastations of war and drought. They had both pastoral and non-pastoral income and could buy animals when their stock was depleted.
Explain any three laws which were introduced by the colonial government in India, which changed the lives of pastoralists.
- From the mid-nineteenth century, Wasteland Rules were enacted in various parts of the country. By these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to selected ‘ individuals.
- By the mid-nineteenth century, various Forest Acts were also enacted in different provinces. Through these Acts some forests which produced valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’. No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests. Other forests were classified as ‘protected’.
- In 1871, the colonial government in India passed the ‘Criminal Tribes Act’. By this Act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. Once this act came into force, these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements.
- To expand its revenue income, the colonial government looked for every possible source of taxation. So, tax was imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods, and even on animals (the Grazing Tax). (Any three)
Write a short note on Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. Many of them migrated to this region in the nineteenth century in search of pastures for their animals. Gradually, over the decades, they established themselves in the area, and moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds.
In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The dry scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds. By the end of April, they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds.
By end September the Bakarwals were on the move again, this time on their downward journey, back to their winter base. When the high mountains were covered with snow, the herds were grazed in the low hills.
Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
Where do the Raikas live ? Mention characteristics of their economy and life.
The Raikas lived in the deserts of Rajasthan. The characteristics of their economy and life are :
- As the rainfall in Rajasthan,was meagre and uncertain, so the Raikas found the cultivation of their land tracts very difficult. Their harvest fluctuated every year. Over vast stretches, no crop could be grown. Therefore, the Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism.
- During the monsoons, the Raikas of Banner, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their home villages, where pasture was available.
- By October, when these grazing grounds were dry and exhausted, the Raikas moved out in search of other pasture and water, and returned again during herded next rainy season.
- One group of Raikas—known as the Maru (desert) Raikas—herded camels and another group reared goats and sheep.
- Therefore, we can say that the life of the Raikas as pastoral groups was sustained by a careful consideration of a host of factors. They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area of Rajasthan, and know where they could find water and pasture in Rajasthan and nearby provinces.
Discuss the main features of life of the Dhangars pastoral community of Maharashtra.
The main feature of life of the Dhangars :
- Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. In the early twentieth century, their population in this region was about 4,67,000.
- Most of the Dhangars were shepherds, some were blanket weavers and still others were buffalo herders.
- The Dhangar shepherds stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. This was a semi-arid region with low rainfall and poor soil. It was covered with thorny scrub. Nothing but dry crops like bajra could be sown here.
- In the monsoon, the central plateau became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks.
- By October, the Dhangars harvested their bajra and started on their move towards west. After a march of about a month, they reached the Konkan. This was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil. Here, the shepherds were welcomed by Konkan peasants.
Write down the main features of the life of Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh.
The main features of the life of Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh as given below :
- In different areas of the mountains, the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh had cycle of seasonal movement. In winter, they moved downward and in summer, they moved upward to the valley. Gaddi shepherds also spent their winter in the low hills of Siwalik range, grazing their flocks in scrub forests. By April, they moved north and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. When the snow melted and the high passes were clear, many of them move on to higher mountain meadows.
- By September, Gaddi shepherds bean their return movement. On the way, they stopped once again in the villages of Lahul and Spiti, reaping their Kharif crop and sowing their Rabi crop. Then,- they come down with their flock to their lower areas or plains on the Siwalik hills.
- Next April, with the coming of summer, Gaddi shepherds, once again, began their march with their sheep and goats, to the summer meadows.
Describe the social organisation of the Maasai tribe in the pre-colonial times.
What changes occurred in Maasai community during colonial period ?
Maasai society was divided into two social categories – elders and warriors. The elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes. The warriors consisted of younger people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe. They defended the community and organised . cattle raids. Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. It is through raids that the power of different pastoral groups was asserted. Young men came to be recognised as members of the warrior class when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars. They, however, were subject to the authority of the elders.
To administer the affairs of the Maasai, the British introduced a series of measures that had important implications. They appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai, who were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe. The British imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare. Consequently, the traditional authority of both elders and warriors was adversely affected.
How did the Indian pastoralists cope with the changes that was brought about by the British colonial officials ?
Under colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were regulated, and the revenue they had to pay increased.
- Some reduced the number of cattle in their herds, since there was not enough pasture to feed large numbers.
- Others discovered new pastures when movement to old grazing grounds became difficult. After 1947, the camel and sheep herding Raikas, for instance, could no longer move into Sindh and graze their camels on the banks of the Indus, as they had done earlier
- In recent years they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on agricultural fields after the harvests are cut. This is the time that the fields need manure that the animals provide.
- Over the years, some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life. Some became settled peasants cultivating land, others took to more extensive trading.
- Many poor pastoralists, on the other hand, borrowed money from moneylenders to survive. At times they lost their cattle and sheep and became labourers, working on fields or in small towns.
Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 NCERT Extra Questions
Where do the Pastoralists normally live?
The Pastorals normally live in the mountainous areas. These mountain areas are e generally covered with lots of shrub forests. These shrubs provide food for their cattle and sheep.
Name the pastoralists in India and mention where they lived?
There were seven major pastoralist communities in India. They were
- The Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir
- The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh
- The Gujjar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaon
- Dhangars of Maharashtra.
- The Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- The Banjaras of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh & Maharashtra
- The Raika of the Rajasthan desserts.
Trace the movement of the Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir reared goats and sheep. They lived with their herds on the low hills of the Siwalik range.
In winter, when the mountains were covered with snow they moved on to the valleys of Kashmir. Several families moved together in a Kafila. The crossed the Pir Panjal passes of the mountains and entered the valley.
In summer when the snow melts, the Bakarwals return to the mountains which are now covered with lush green grasslands.
Name the two groups in the Raikas of the Rajasthan deserts.
The Raikas of the Rajasthan desserts can be classified into two groups according to the animals they reared. The Marus Raikas reared camels while the Raikas reared sheep and goats.
What were the activities that the Raikas were involved in?
The Raikas combined a range of different activities – cultivation, trade and herding – to make their living .
During the monsoons, the Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their villages and cultivated crops. They traded with the local farmers to get their requirement. They also had to maintain good relations with the local farmers so that the farmers would let their cattle graze in harvested fields.
The Raikas had to be good in predicting the weather so that they would be able to move about safely. They had to be experts in sporting natural resources water and pasture.
Write a note on the Dhangars of Maharashtra.
Dhangars were an important pastoral community in Maharashtra. In the early twentieth century their population was estimated to be 467,000. The Dhangras were mainly shepherds. Some of them were blanket weavers, while a few reared buffaloes.
The Dhangars stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoons. The central plateau had very low rain fall and was very dry. It was covered with only thorny shrubs. As the soil was poor only dry crops like bajra could be grown there.
During monsoon the picture was entirely different. The area became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. The Dhangars harvested their bajra by October every year and then moved westward.
The Dhangars reached Konkan in the month of March, annually. Konkan was a flourishing agricultural land with high rainfall and rich soil. The pastoralists were welcomed by Konkani peasants. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice to the Dhangars , who took it back to the plateaus, where grain was scarce.
As the monsoons set, the Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas with their flocks and returned to their settlements on the dry plateau as their sheep could not tolerate the wet monsoon conditions.
Constant movement was the way of life of the pastoralists.
What are Gujjar Mandaps?
The huts in which the Gujjar cattle herders, of Ghahwal stay, are called Gujjar Mandaps. These huts are made up of bamboo and grass. They are situated at about 10,000 to 11,000 feet, as buffaloes cannot climb any higher. The mandap is also a work place for the herders. They make ghee in these huts.
Mention the Acts that were enforced by the colonial government that affected the lives of the pastoralist community.
The colonial government enforced four major laws that affected the pastoralists in a devastating manner. They were
Waste Land rules
Criminal Tribes Act
How did the laws enforced by the colonial government affect the lived of the pastoralists?
The laws brought a lot of hardship to the pastoralists. The laws led to a serious shortage of pastures, which was very important for the nomads. Under the new laws grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivating fields and thus the available area of pastureland declined.
The reservation of forests meant that shepherds and cattle herders could no longer freely graze their cattle in the forests.
The restrictions and reservations the laws enforced threatened the very livelihood of the pastoralists and many had to resettle and adapt themselves to the new ways of the world.
How did the pastoralists cope with the changes brought about by the new laws?
Pastoralists reacted to these changes in a variety of ways. Some reduced the number of cattle in their herds, since there was not enough pasture to feed large numbers. Others discovered new pastures, when old grazing grounds were banned by the government.
Over the years, some rich pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life they settled down to cultivating land. Others took to extensive trading.
Poor pastoralists, borrowed money from moneylenders to survive, at times they lost their cattle and sheep and became labourers, working on fields or in small towns.
The changes that took place in India, was also seen in other parts of the world. New laws and settlement patterns forced pastoral communities to alter their lives.
Mention a few Pastoral communities in Africa.
There are over 22 million Africans depending on some form of pastoral activity or other for their livelihood, till today.
Some of the Pastoral communities in Africa are :-
Most of them now live in the semi-dry grasslands or deserts where rain fed agriculture is difficult.
What were the social changes that occurred in the Maasai pastoral community?
The social changes in the Maasai society occurred at two levels.
Firstly, the traditional difference based on age, between the elders and warriors, was disturbed, though it did not break down entirely. Secondly, a new distinction between the wealthy and poor pastoralists developed.
The pastoral communities in different parts of the world were affected in a variety of ways, by the changes in the modern world. New laws and new borders affected the patterns of their movement and their livelihood.
How did the pastoralists in Africa adapt themselves to tide over the bad times?
The life of poor pastoralists, in Africa, who depended mainly on their livestock, became very difficult in times of war and famine. during these times they lost every thing.
To tide over the bad times the pastoralists had to go looking for work in towns. Some found a living as charcoal burners and others did odd jobs. A few of the pastoralists were lucky to get more regular work in road or building construction.
How did the British administer the affairs of the Maasai community?
The British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of the Maasai community to administer their affairs. They were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe. The chiefs appointed by the colonial government accumulated wealth over the years. They had a regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land. Many of them began living in towns, and became involved in trade.
What were the views of Environmentalists and economists on pastoral nomadism?
Environmentalists and economists felt that pastoral nomadism was the way of life that was best suited to many hilly and dry regions of the world.